Description of Securities
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES
The following is a brief description of the securities of Stellus Capital Investment Corporation (the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”), registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). This description of our securities does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”), and the full text of our charter, bylaws and the relevant indenture and supplemental indenture governing the debt securities described herein. As of December 31, 2019 and the date hereof, our common stock and the debt securities described herein are the only securities that we have registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.
As of December 31, 2019, our authorized stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which are initially designated as common stock. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “SCM.” There are no outstanding options or warrants to purchase our stock. No stock has been authorized for issuance under any equity compensation plans. Our fiscal year-end is December 31st. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations.
Under our charter, our board of directors is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock without obtaining stockholder approval. As permitted by the MGCL, our charter provides that the board of directors, without any action by our stockholders, may amend the charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue.
All shares of our common stock have equal rights as to earnings, assets, voting, and distributions and, when they are issued, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Distributions may be paid to the holders of our common stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available therefor. Shares of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or redemption rights and are freely transferable, except where their transfer is restricted by federal and state securities laws or by contract. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each share of our common stock would be entitled to share ratably in all of our assets that are legally available for distribution after we pay all debts and other liabilities and subject to any preferential rights of holders of our preferred stock, if any preferred stock is outstanding at such time. Each share of our common stock is entitled to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock possess exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of our directors, and holders of less than a majority of such shares will be unable to elect any director.
Certain Provisions of the MGCL and Our Charter and Bylaws
The MGCL and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a potential acquirer to acquire us by means of a tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. These provisions are expected to discourage certain coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of these provisions outweigh the potential disadvantages of discouraging any such acquisition proposals because, among other things, the negotiation of such proposals may improve their terms.
Classified Board of Directors
Our board of directors is divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three-year terms. Upon expiration of their terms, directors of each class will be elected to serve for three-year terms and until their successors are duly elected and qualify and each year one class of directors will be elected by the stockholders. A classified board may render a change in control of us or removal of our incumbent management more difficult. We believe, however, that the longer time required to elect a majority of a classified board of directors will help to ensure the continuity and stability of our management and policies.
Election of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the affirmative vote of the holders of a plurality of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present will be required to elect a director. Pursuant to our charter our board of directors may amend the bylaws to alter the vote required to elect directors.
Number of Directors; Vacancies; Removal
Our charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by the board of directors in accordance with our bylaws. Our bylaws provide that a majority of our entire board of directors may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, unless our bylaws are amended, the number of directors may never be less than one or more than nine. Our charter provides that, at such time as we have at least three independent directors and our common stock is registered under the Exchange Act, we elect to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL regarding the filling of vacancies on the board of directors. Accordingly, at such time, except as may be provided by the board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any and all vacancies on the board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies, subject to any applicable requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Our charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause, as defined in our charter, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors.
Action by Stockholders
Under the MGCL, stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or (unless the charter provides for stockholder action by less than unanimous written consent, which our charter does not) by unanimous written consent in lieu of a meeting. These provisions, combined with the requirements of our bylaws regarding the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a stockholder proposal until the next annual meeting.
Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Nominations and Stockholder Proposals
Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of persons for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (a) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (b) by the board of directors or (c) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the board of directors at a special meeting may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by the board of directors or (3) provided that the board of directors has determined that directors will be elected at the meeting, by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions of the bylaws. The purpose of requiring stockholders to give us advance notice of nominations and other business is to afford our board of directors a meaningful opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees and the advisability of any other proposed business and, to the extent deemed necessary or desirable by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations about such qualifications or business, as well as to provide a more orderly procedure for conducting meetings of stockholders. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors any power to disapprove stockholder nominations for the election of directors or proposals recommending certain action, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or the consideration of stockholder proposals if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our stockholders.
Calling of Special Meetings of Stockholders
Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors and certain of our officers. Additionally, our bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders will be called by the secretary of the corporation upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting.
Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Action; Amendment of Charter and Bylaws
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter generally provides for approval of charter amendments and extraordinary transactions by the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter also provides that certain charter amendments, any proposal for our conversion, whether by charter amendment, merger or otherwise, from a closed-end company to an open-end company and any proposal for our liquidation or dissolution requires the approval of the stockholders entitled to cast at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter. However, if such amendment or proposal is approved by a majority of our continuing directors (in addition to approval by our board of directors), such amendment or proposal may be approved by a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such a matter. In either event, in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act, any such amendment or proposal that would have the effect of changing the nature of our business so as to cause us to cease to be, or to withdraw our election as, a BDC would be required to be approved by a majority of our outstanding voting securities, as defined under the 1940 Act. The “continuing directors” are defined in our charter as (a) our current directors, (b) those directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies is approved by a majority of our current directors then on the board of directors or (c) any successor directors whose nomination for election by the stockholders or whose election by the directors to fill vacancies is approved by a majority of continuing directors or the successor continuing directors then in office.
Our charter and bylaws provide that the board of directors have the exclusive power to make, alter, amend or repeal any provision of our bylaws.
No Appraisal Rights
Except with respect to appraisal rights arising in connection with the Control Share Act discussed below, as permitted by the MGCL, our charter provides that stockholders will not be entitled to exercise appraisal rights unless a majority of the board of directors shall determine such rights apply.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, or the Control Share Act. Shares owned by the acquirer, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:
|•||one-tenth or more but less than one-third;|
|•||one-third or more but less than a majority; or|
|•||a majority or more of all voting power.|
The requisite stockholder approval must be obtained each time an acquirer crosses one of the thresholds of voting power set forth above. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the board of directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations, including, as provided in our bylaws, compliance with the 1940 Act. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The Control Share Act does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Control Share Act any and all acquisitions by any person of our shares of stock. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future. However, we will amend our bylaws to be subject to the Control Share Act only if the board of directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Control Share Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act.
Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, or the Business Combination Act. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:
|•||any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or|
|•||an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.|
A person is not an interested stockholder under this statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the stockholder otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board. After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
|•||80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and|
|•||two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.|
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution that any business combination between us and any other person is exempted from the provisions of the Business Combination Act, provided that the business combination is first approved by the board of directors, including a majority of the directors who are not interested persons as defined in the 1940 Act. This resolution may be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time; however, our board of directors will adopt resolutions so as to make us subject to the provisions of the Business Combination Act only if the board of directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the SEC staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Business Combination Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act. If this resolution is repealed, or the board of directors does not otherwise approve a business combination, the statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
Conflict with 1940 Act
Our bylaws provide that, if and to the extent that any provision of the MGCL, including the Control Share Act (if we amend our bylaws to be subject to such Act) and the Business Combination Act, or any provision of our charter or bylaws conflicts with any provision of the 1940 Act, the applicable provision of the 1940 Act will control.
|B.||Debt Securities – 5.75% Notes due 2022|
On August 21, 2017, we issued $42.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.75% fixed-rate notes due 2022 (the “2022 Notes”) under an indenture dated as of May 5, 2014 and the second supplemental indenture thereto, dated August 21, 2017, entered into between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (together, the “Indenture”). On September 8, 2017, the Company issued an additional $6.4 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2022 Notes pursuant to a full exercise of the underwriters’ overallotment option.
The 2022 Notes will mature on September 15, 2022. The principal payable at maturity will be 100% of the aggregate principal amount. The interest rate of the 2022 Notes is 5.75% per year and will be paid every March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15, which began December 15, 2017, and the regular record dates for interest payments will be every March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1 of each year, beginning December 1, 2017. If an interest payment date falls on a non-business day, the applicable interest payment will be made on the next business day and no additional interest will accrue as a result of such delayed payment. The initial interest period was the period from and including August 21, 2017, to, but excluding, the initial interest payment date, and the subsequent interest periods are the periods from and including an interest payment date to, but excluding, the next interest payment date or the stated maturity date, as the case may be.
The 2022 Notes are issued in denominations of $25 and integral multiples of $25 in excess thereof. The 2022 Notes are not subject to any sinking fund and holders of the 2022 Notes (the “Noteholders”) do not have the option to have the 2022 Notes repaid prior to the stated maturity date.
The Indenture does not contain any provisions that give the Noteholders protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt or are acquired by another entity.
We have the ability to issue indenture securities with terms different from the 2022 Notes and, without the consent of the holders thereof, to reopen the 2022 Notes and issue additional 2022 Notes.
The 2022 Notes may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option on or after September 15, 2019 upon not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days written notice by mail prior to the date fixed for redemption thereof, at a redemption price of 100% of the outstanding principal amount of the 2022 Notes to be redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest payments otherwise payable thereon for the then-current quarterly interest period accrued to the date fixed for redemption.
The Noteholders may be prevented from exchanging or transferring the 2022 Notes when they are subject to redemption. In case any 2022 Notes are to be redeemed in part only, the redemption notice will provide that, upon surrender of such Note, the Noteholders will receive, without a charge, a new 2022 Note or 2022 Notes of authorized denominations representing the principal amount of the Noteholders remaining unredeemed 2022 Notes. Any exercise of our option to redeem the 2022 Notes will be done in compliance with the 1940 Act.
If we redeem only some of the 2022 Notes, the trustee will determine the method for selection of the particular 2022 Notes to be redeemed, in accordance with the Indenture and in accordance with the rules of any national securities exchange or quotation system on which the 2022 Notes are listed. Unless we default in payment of the redemption price, interest will cease to accrue on the 2022 Notes called for redemption on and after the date of redemption.
Events of Default
The Noteholders have rights if an Event of Default occurs in respect of the 2022 Notes, as described later in this subsection. The term “Event of Default” in respect of the 2022 Notes means any of the following:
|•||We do not pay the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any 2022 Note within five days of its due date.|
|•||We do not pay interest on any 2022 Note when due, and such default is not cured within 30 days.|
|•||We remain in breach of any other covenant with respect to the 2022 Notes for 60 days after we receive a written notice of default stating we are in breach. The notice must be sent by either the Trustee or holders of at least 25% of the principal amount of the 2022 Notes.|
|•||We file for bankruptcy or certain other events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur and in the case of certain orders or decrees entered against us under any bankruptcy law, such order or decree remains undischarged or unstayed for a period of 60 days.|
|•||On the last business day of each of twenty-four consecutive calendar months, the 2022 Notes have an asset coverage of less than 100%, after giving effect to any exemptive relief granted to us by the SEC.|
No periodic evidence is required to be furnished as to the absence of default or as to compliance with the terms of the Indenture. An Event of Default for the 2022 Notes does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series of debt securities issued under the same or any other indenture. The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the 2022 Notes of any default, except in the payment of principal or interest, if it in good faith considers the withholding of notice to be in the best interests of the holders.
Remedies if an Event of Default Occurs
If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the 2022 Notes may declare the entire principal amount of all the 2022 Notes to be due and immediately payable. This is called a declaration of acceleration of maturity. In certain circumstances, a declaration of acceleration of maturity may be canceled by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the 2022 Notes if (1) we have deposited with the trustee all amounts due and owing with respect to the 2022 Notes (other than principal that has become due solely by reason of such acceleration) and certain other amounts, and (2) any other Events of Default have been cured or waived.
The trustee is not required to take any action under the Indenture at the request of any holders unless the holders offer the trustee protection from expenses and liability reasonably satisfactory to it (called an “indemnity”). If indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee is provided, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the 2022 Notes may direct the time, method and place of conducting any lawsuit or other formal legal action seeking any remedy available to the trustee. The trustee may refuse to follow those directions in certain circumstances. No delay or omission in exercising any right or remedy will be treated as a waiver of that right, remedy or Event of Default.
Before the Noteholders are allowed to bypass the trustee and bring their own lawsuit or other formal legal action or take other steps to enforce their rights or protect their interests relating to the 2022 Notes, the following must occur:
|•||The Noteholders must give the trustee written notice that an Event of Default has occurred and remains uncured;|
|•||the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of all the 2022 Notes must make a written request that the trustee take action because of the default and must offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee against the costs, expenses and other liabilities of taking that action;|
|•||the trustee must not have taken action for 60 days after receipt of the above notice and offer of indemnity; and|
|•||the holders of a majority in principal amount of the 2022 Notes must not have given the trustee a direction inconsistent with the above notice during that 60-day period.|
However, the Noteholders are entitled at any time to bring a lawsuit for the payment of money due on their 2022 Notes on or after the due date.
Book-entry and other indirect holders should consult their banks or brokers for information on how to give notice or direction to or make a request of the trustee and how to declare or cancel an acceleration of maturity.
Each year, we will furnish to the trustee a written statement of certain of our officers certifying that to their knowledge we are in compliance with the Indenture and the 2022 Notes, or else specifying any default.
Waiver of Default
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the 2022 Notes may waive any past defaults other than a default:
|•||the payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest; or|
|•||in respect of a covenant that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of each holder.|
Modification or Waiver
There are three types of changes we can make to the Indenture and the 2022 Notes issued thereunder.
Changes Requiring the Noteholders’ Approval
First, there are changes that we cannot make to the Noteholders’ 2022 Notes without their specific approval. The following is a list of those types of changes:
|•||change the stated maturity of the principal of or interest on the 2022 Notes;|
|•||reduce any amounts due on the 2022 Notes;|
|•||reduce the amount of principal payable upon acceleration of the maturity of a 2022 Note following a default;|
|•||change the place or currency of payment on a 2022 Note;|
|•||impair the Noteholders’ right to sue for payment;|
|•||adversely affect any rights to convert or exchange any note in accordance with its terms;|
|•||reduce the percentage of the Noteholders whose consent is needed to modify or amend the Indenture;|
|•||reduce the percentage of the Noteholders whose consent is needed to waive compliance with certain provisions of the Indenture or to waive certain defaults; and|
|•||modify any other material aspect of the Indenture dealing with supplemental indentures, modification and waiver of past defaults, reduction of the quorum or voting requirements or the waiver of certain covenants.|
Changes Not Requiring Approval
The second type of change does not require any vote by the Noteholders. This type is limited to clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect the Noteholders in any material respect.
Changes Requiring Majority Approval
Any other change to the Indenture and the 2022 Notes would require the following approval:
|•||if the change affects only the 2022 Notes, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the 2022 Notes; and|
|•||if the change affects more than one series of debt securities issued under the same indenture, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of all of the series affected by the change, with all affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.|
In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of all of the series of debt securities issued under an indenture, voting together as one class for this purpose, may waive our compliance with some of our covenants in that indenture. However, we cannot obtain a waiver of a payment default or of any of the matters covered by the bullet points included above under “— Changes Requiring the Noteholders’ Approval.”
Further Details Concerning Voting
When taking a vote, we use the principal amount that would be due and payable on the voting date if the maturity of the 2022 Notes were accelerated to that date because of a default, to decide how much principal to attribute to the 2022 Notes:
The 2022 Notes will not be considered outstanding, and therefore not eligible to vote, if we have deposited or set aside in trust money for their payment or redemption. The 2022 Notes will also not be eligible to vote if they have been fully defeased as described later under “— Defeasance — Full Defeasance.”
We are generally entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Noteholders that are entitled to vote or take other action under the Indenture. However, the record date may not be more than 30 days before the date of the first solicitation of holders to vote on or take such action. If we set a record date for a vote or other action to be taken by the Noteholders, that vote or action may be taken only by persons who are the Noteholders on the record date and must be taken within eleven months following the record date.
The following defeasance provisions are applicable to the 2022 Notes. “Defeasance” means that, by depositing with a trustee an amount of cash and/or government securities sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on the 2022 Notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions noted below, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under the 2022 Notes. In the event of a “covenant defeasance,” upon depositing such funds and satisfying similar conditions discussed below we would be released from certain covenants under the Indenture relating to the 2022 Notes. The consequences to the Noteholders would be that, while they would no longer benefit from certain covenants under the Indenture, and while the 2022 Notes could not be accelerated for any reason, the Noteholders nonetheless would be guaranteed to receive the principal and interest owed to them.
Under current U.S. federal tax law and the Indenture, we can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the Indenture under which the 2022 Notes were issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, the Noteholders would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay their 2022 Notes. If we achieve covenant defeasance and the Noteholders’ 2022 Notes were subordinated as described under “Indenture Provisions — Ranking” below, such subordination would not prevent the trustee under the Indenture from applying the funds available to it from the deposit described in the first bullet below to the payment of amounts due in respect of such debt securities for the benefit of the subordinated debtholders. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:
|•||Since the 2022 Notes are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all the Noteholders a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the 2022 Notes on their various due dates;|
|•||we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current U.S. federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing the Noteholders to be taxed on the 2022 Notes any differently than if we did not make the deposit;|
|•||we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel stating that the above deposit does not require registration by us under the 1940 Act, and a legal opinion and officers’ certificate stating that all conditions precedent to covenant defeasance have been complied with;|
|•||defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or result in a default under, the Indenture or any of our other material agreements or instruments; and|
|•||no default or event of default with respect to the 2022 Notes shall have occurred and be continuing and no defaults or events of default related to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization shall occur during the next 90 days.|
If we accomplish covenant defeasance, the Noteholders can still look to us for repayment of the 2022 Notes if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. In fact, if one of the remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the 2022 Notes became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, the Noteholders may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.
If there is a change in U.S. federal tax law, as described below, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the 2022 Notes (called “full defeasance”) if we put in place the following other arrangements for the Noteholders to be repaid:
|•||Since the 2022 Notes are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all the Noteholders a combination of money and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the 2022 Notes on their various due dates;|
|•||we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current U.S. federal tax law or an IRS ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing the Noteholders to be taxed on the 2022 Notes any differently than if we did not make the deposit;|
|•||we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel stating that the above deposit does not require registration by us under the 1940 Act, and a legal opinion and officers’ certificate stating that all conditions precedent to defeasance have been complied with;|
|•||defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, of the Indenture or any of our other material agreements or instruments; and|
|•||no default or event of default with respect to the 2022 Notes shall have occurred and be continuing and no defaults or events of default related to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization shall occur during the next 90 days.|
If we ever did accomplish full defeasance, as described above, the Noteholders would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the 2022 Notes. The Noteholders could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of our lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent. If the Noteholders’ 2022 Notes were subordinated as described later under “— Indenture Provisions — Ranking,” such subordination would not prevent the trustee under the Indenture from applying the funds available to it from the deposit referred to in the first bullet of the preceding paragraph to the payment of amounts due in respect of such 2022 Notes for the benefit of the subordinated debtholders.
In addition to any other covenants described in this description, as well as standard covenants relating to payment of principal and interest, maintaining an office where payments may be made or securities can be surrendered for payment, payment of taxes by the Company and related matters, the following covenants apply to the 2022 Notes:
|•||We agree that for the period of time during which the 2022 Notes are outstanding, we will not violate Section 18(a)(1)(A) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act or any successor provisions, whether or not we continue to be subject to such provisions of the 1940 Act, but giving effect, in either case, to any exemptive relief granted to us by the SEC. Currently, these provisions generally prohibit us from making additional borrowings, including through the issuance of additional debt or the sale of additional debt securities, unless our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 150% after such borrowings.|
|•||We agree that for the period of time during which the 2022 Notes are outstanding, we will not violate Section 18(a)(1)(B) as modified by (i) Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act or any successor provisions and (ii) the exception set forth below, despite the fact that we are not currently subject to such provisions of the 1940 Act, except that we are permitted to declare a cash dividend or distribution notwithstanding the prohibition contained in Section 18(a)(1)(B) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act, but only up to such amount as is necessary in order for us to maintain our status as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and, provided that, any such prohibition will not apply until such time as our asset coverage has been below the minimum asset coverage required pursuant to clause (i) above for more than six consecutive months. If Section 18(a)(1)(B) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act were currently applicable to us in connection with this offering, these provisions would generally prohibit us from declaring any cash dividend or distribution upon any class of our capital stock, or purchasing any such capital stock if our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, were below 150% at the time of the declaration of the dividend or distribution or the purchase and after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution or purchase.|
|•||If, at any time, we are not subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, to file any periodic reports with the SEC, we agree to furnish to the Noteholders and the Trustee, for the period of time during which the 2022 Notes are outstanding, our audited annual consolidated financial statements, within 90 days of our fiscal year end, and unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, within 45 days of our fiscal quarter end (other than our fourth fiscal quarter). All such financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with applicable United States generally accepted accounting principles.|
Indenture Provisions — Ranking
The 2022 Notes are designated as Senior Securities and, therefore, Senior Indebtedness under the Indenture. Senior Indebtedness is defined in the Indenture as the principal of (and premium, if any) and unpaid interest on:
|•||our indebtedness (including indebtedness of others guaranteed by us), whenever created, incurred, assumed or guaranteed, for money borrowed, that we have designated as “Senior Indebtedness” for purposes of the Indenture and in accordance with the terms of the Indenture (including any indenture securities designated as Senior Indebtedness), and|
|•||renewals, extensions, modifications and refinancings of any of this indebtedness.|
The 2022 Notes are not secured by any assets of the Company. As unsecured obligations of the Company designated as Senior Indebtedness under the Indenture, the 2022 Notes rank
|•||pari passu, or equal, with our future senior unsecured indebtedness;|
|•||senior to any of our future indebtedness that expressly provides it is subordinated to the 2022 Notes;|
|•||effectively subordinated to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness, including without limitation, borrowings under our $220.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility, or the Credit Facility, of which $161.6 million was outstanding as of December 31, 2019; and|
|•||structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other obligations of any of our subsidiaries.|
In particular, as designated Senior Indebtedness under the Indenture, the 2022 Notes will rank senior to any future securities we issue under the Indenture that are designated as subordinated debt securities. Any such Indenture securities designated as subordinated debt securities will be subordinated in right of payment of the principal of (and premium if any) and interest, if any, on such subordinated debt securities to the prior payment in full of the 2022 Notes, and all other Senior Indebtedness under the Indenture, upon any distribution of our assets upon our dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization. In addition, no payment on account of principal (or premium, if any), sinking fund or interest, if any, may be made on such subordinated debt securities at any time unless full payment of all amounts due in respect of the principal (and premium, if any), sinking fund and interest on the 2022 Notes, and all other Senior Indebtedness, has been made or duly provided for in money or money’s worth.
In the event that, notwithstanding the foregoing, any payment by us is received by the trustee in respect of subordinated debt securities or by the holders of any of such subordinated debt securities, upon our dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization before the 2022 Notes, and all other Senior Indebtedness, are paid in full, the payment or distribution must be paid over to the holders of our Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, or on their behalf for application to the payment of all Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, remaining unpaid until all Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, have been paid in full, after giving effect to any concurrent payment or distribution to the holders of our Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes. Subject to the payment in full of the all Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, upon this distribution by us, the holders of such subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of our Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, to the extent of payments made to the holders of our Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, out of the distributive share of such subordinated debt securities.
By reason of this subordination, in the event of a distribution of our assets upon our insolvency, our Senior Indebtedness, including the 2022 Notes, and certain of our senior creditors, may recover more, ratably, than holders of any subordinated debt securities or the holders of any indenture securities that are not Senior Indebtedness. The Indenture provides that these subordination provisions will not apply to money and securities held in trust under the defeasance provisions of the Indenture.
The Trustee under the Indenture
U.S. Bank National Association serves as the trustee under the Indenture.