Description of Securities

EX-4.1 2 zivo_ex41.htm EXHIBIT zivo_ex41.htm






The following summary of the terms of our capital stock is qualified in its entirety by reference to our articles of incorporation, as amended (“Articles of Incorporation”) and amended and restated bylaws (“Bylaws”), copies of which are filed as exhibits to our Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this Exhibit 4.5 is a part, and the applicable provisions of the Nevada Private Corporations Code, Title 78 of the Nevada Revised Statutes, or “NRS”..


Our Articles of Incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of common stock par value $0.001 per share (“Common Stock”).


Common Stock




Holders of Common Stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. Our holders of Common Stock do not have cumulative voting rights. Holders of Common Stock will be entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by the Board out of funds legally available therefor, which may be paid in cash, property, or in shares of the Company’s capital stock. Upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, either voluntarily or involuntarily, the holders of Common Stock will be entitled to receive their ratable share of the net assets of the Company legally available for distribution after payment of all debts and other liabilities. There are no conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights and there are no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to the Common Stock.




We have not declared or paid any dividends on our Common Stock since our inception and do not anticipate paying dividends for the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends is subject to the discretion of our Board and will depend, among other things, upon our earnings, our capital requirements, our financial condition, and other relevant factors. We intend to reinvest any earnings in the development and expansion of our business. Any cash dividends in the future to Common Stockholders will be payable when, as and if declared by our Board, based upon the board’s assessment of our financial condition and performance, earnings, need for funds, capital requirements, prior claims of preferred stock to the extent issued and outstanding, and other factors, including income tax consequences, restrictions and applicable laws. There can be no assurance, therefore, that any dividends on our Common Stock will ever be paid.


Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws and Nevada Law


The following is a brief description of the provisions in our Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws and Nevada Law that could have an effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of the Company.


Business Combinations


We are a Nevada corporation and are generally governed by the NRS.






The “business combination” provisions of Sections 78.411 to 78.444, inclusive, of the NRS, generally prohibit a Nevada corporation with at least 200 stockholders from engaging in various “combination” transactions with any interested stockholder for a period of two years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors prior to the date the interested stockholder obtained such status or the combination is approved by the board of directors and thereafter is approved at a meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least 60% of the outstanding voting power held by disinterested stockholders, and extends beyond the expiration of the two-year period, unless:




the combination was approved by the board of directors prior to the person becoming an interested stockholder or the transaction by which the person first became an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors before the person became an interested stockholder or the combination is later approved by a majority of the voting power held by disinterested stockholders; or






price per share paid by the interested stockholder within the two years immediately preceding the date of the announcement of the combination or in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder, whichever is higher, (b) the market value per share of Common Stock on the date of announcement of the combination and the date the interested stockholder acquired the shares, whichever is higher, or (c) for holders of preferred stock, the highest liquidation value of the preferred stock, if it is higher.


A “combination” is generally defined to include mergers or consolidations or any sale, lease exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer, or other disposition, in one transaction or a series of transactions, with an “interested stockholder” having: (a) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of the assets of the corporation, (b) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of all outstanding shares of the corporation, (c) 10% or more of the earning power or net income of the corporation, and (d) certain other transactions with an interested stockholder or an affiliate or associate of an interested stockholder.


In general, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within two years, did own) 10% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire our Company even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.


Control Share Acquisitions


The “control share” provisions of Sections 78.378 to 78.3793, inclusive, of the NRS apply to “issuing corporations” that are Nevada corporations with at least 200 stockholders, including at least 100 stockholders of record who are Nevada residents, and that conduct business directly or indirectly in Nevada. The control share statute prohibits an acquirer, under certain circumstances, from voting its shares of a target corporation’s stock after crossing certain ownership threshold percentages, unless the acquirer obtains approval of the target corporation’s disinterested stockholders. The statute specifies three thresholds: one-fifth or more but less than one-third, one-third but less than a majority, and a majority or more, of the outstanding voting power.


Generally, once an acquirer crosses one of the above thresholds, those shares in an offer or acquisition and acquired within 90 days thereof become “control shares” and such control shares are deprived of the right to vote until disinterested stockholders restore the right. These provisions also provide that if control shares are accorded full voting rights and the acquiring person has acquired a majority or more of all voting power, all other stockholders who do not vote in favor of authorizing voting rights to the control shares are entitled to demand payment for the fair value of their shares in accordance with statutory procedures established for dissenters’ rights.


A corporation may elect to not be governed by, or “opt out” of, the control share provisions by making an election in its articles of incorporation or bylaws, provided that the opt-out election must be in place on the 10th day following the date an acquiring person has acquired a controlling interest, that is, crossing any of the three thresholds described above. We have not opted out of the control share statutes, and will be subject to these statutes if we are an “issuing corporation” as defined in such statutes.


The effect of the Nevada control share statutes is that the acquiring person, and those acting in association with the acquiring person, will obtain only such voting rights in the control shares as are conferred by a resolution of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting. The Nevada control share law, if applicable, could have the effect of discouraging takeovers of our Company.




Number of Directors; Vacancies; Removal


Our Bylaws provide that our Board may fix the number of directors at no less than one and no more than nine. Any vacancy on the Board may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors though less than a quorum of the Board. A director elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his predecessor in office, and shall hold such office until his successor is duly elected and qualified. Any directorship to be filled by reason of an increase in the number of directors shall be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office or by an election at an annual meeting, or at a special meeting of stockholders called for that purpose. A director chosen to fill a position resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall hold office only until the next election of directors by the stockholders.


Our Bylaws provide that any director or directors of the corporation may be removed from office at any time, with or without cause, by the vote or written consent of stockholders representing not less than a majority of the issued and outstanding capital stock entitled to voting power.


Authorized Shares


Without any action by our shareholders, we may increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares or the number of shares of any class we have authority to issue at any time. The board shall have authority to establish more than one class or series of shares of this corporation, and the different classes and series shall have such relative rights and preferences, with such designations, as the board may by resolution provide. Issuance of such a new class or series could, depending upon the terms of the class or series, delay, defer, or prevent a change of control of the Company.


Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations


Our Bylaws contain advance notice provisions that a stockholder must follow if it intends to bring business proposals or director nominations, as applicable, before a meeting of stockholders. These provisions may preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before the annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations at the annual meeting of stockholders.


No Cumulative Voting


Holders of our common shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of Directors. The absence of cumulative voting may make it more difficult for shareholders owning less than a majority of our common shares to elect any Directors to our Board.


Description of Outstanding Warrants


As of April 19, 2022, there were warrants outstanding to purchase a total of 5,529,132 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants, with a weighted average exercise price of $6.46. 2,975,497 of these warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the ticker symbol “ZIVOW.”


Certain of these warrants have a net exercise provision under which its holder may, in lieu of payment of the exercise price in cash, surrender the warrant and receive a net amount of shares based on the fair market value of our common stock at the time of exercise of the warrant after deduction of the aggregate exercise price. Each of these warrants also contains provisions for the adjustment of the exercise price and the aggregate number of shares issuable upon the exercise of the warrant in the event of dividends, share splits, reorganizations and reclassifications and consolidations.