paragraph, collect Operating Expenses from Tenant in an amount in excess of what Landlord incurs for the items included in Operating Expenses, and (iii) charge any single expense to Operating Expenses more than once. Operating Expenses shall be reduced by all cash discounts, trade discounts, or quantity discounts received by Landlord or Landlord’s managing agent in the purchase of any goods, utilities, or services in connection with the operation of the Project, and, to the extent commercially reasonable, Landlord shall make payments for goods, utilities, or services in a timely manner in order to maximize any applicable discount.
.2.4“Systems and Equipment” shall mean any plant (including any central plant), machinery, transformers, duct work, cable, wires, and other equipment, facilities, and systems designed to supply heat, ventilation, air conditioning and humidity or any other services or utilities, or comprising or serving as any component or portion of the electrical, gas, steam, plumbing, sprinkler, communications, alarm, lab, security, or fire/life safety systems or equipment, or any other mechanical, electrical, electronic, computer or other systems or equipment which serve the Building or the Project in whole or in part.
.2.5“Tax Expenses” shall mean all federal, state, county, or local governmental or municipal taxes, fees, assessments, charges or other impositions of every kind and nature, whether general, special, ordinary or extraordinary, (including, without limitation, real estate taxes, general and special assessments, transit assessments, fees and taxes, child care subsidies, fees and/or assessments, job training subsidies, fees and/or assessments, open space fees and/or assessments, housing subsidies and/or housing fund fees or assessments, public art fees and/or assessments, leasehold taxes or taxes based upon the receipt of rent, including gross receipts or sales taxes applicable to the receipt of rent, personal property taxes imposed upon the fixtures, machinery, equipment, apparatus, systems and equipment, appurtenances, furniture and other personal property used in connection with the Project), which are actually accrued and which Landlord shall pay during any Expense Year because of or in connection with the ownership, leasing and operation of the Project or Landlord’s interest therein.
.2.5.1Tax Expenses shall include, without limitation:
(i)Any tax on Landlord’s rent, right to rent or other income from the Project or as against Landlord’s business of leasing any of the Project;
(ii)Any assessment, tax, fee, levy or charge in addition to, or in substitution, partially or totally, of any assessment, tax, fee, levy or charge previously included within the definition of real property tax, it being acknowledged by Tenant and Landlord that Proposition 13 was adopted by the voters of the State of California in the June 1978 election (“Proposition 13”) and that assessments, taxes, fees, levies and charges may be imposed by governmental agencies for such services as fire protection, street, sidewalk and road maintenance, refuse removal and for other governmental services formerly provided without charge to property owners or occupants. It is the intention of Tenant and Landlord that all such new and increased assessments, taxes, fees, levies, and charges and all similar assessments, taxes, fees, levies and charges be included within the definition of Tax Expenses for purposes of this Lease;
(iii)Any assessment, tax, fee, levy, or charge allocable to or measured by the area of the Premises or the rent payable hereunder, including, without limitation, any gross income tax upon or with respect to the possession, leasing, operating, management, maintenance, alteration, repair, use or occupancy by Tenant of the Premises, or any portion thereof;
(iv)Any assessment, tax, fee, levy or charge, upon this transaction or any document to which Tenant is a party, creating or transferring an interest or an estate in the Premises; and
(v)Any reasonable expenses reasonably incurred by Landlord in attempting to protest, reduce or minimize Tax Expenses.
.2.5.2Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 4.2.5, there shall be excluded from Tax Expenses (i) all excess profits taxes, franchise taxes, gift taxes, capital stock taxes, inheritance and succession taxes, estate taxes, federal and state net income taxes, and other taxes to the extent