effective, and each director so chosen will hold office until his successor is elected and qualified or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.
Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Our Bylaws may be amended or repealed, or new bylaws may be adopted, by our Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting by the affirmative vote of a majority of all of the members of the Board of Directors, provided, in the case of any special meeting at which all of the members of the Board of Directors are not present, that the notice of such meeting shall have stated that the amendment of the Bylaws was one of the purposes of the meeting. Our Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed and other bylaws may be adopted by the holders of a majority of the total outstanding stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at any annual meeting or special meeting, provided, in the case of any special meeting, that notice of such proposed alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption is included in the notice of the meeting.
Any provision of our Certificate may be amended or repealed from time to time and at any time in the manner prescribed by the laws of the state of Delaware. The Delaware General Corporation Law (the DGCL) provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding stock entitled to vote on amendments to a corporations certificate of incorporation or bylaws is required to approve such amendment.
Exclusive Jurisdiction of Certain Actions
Unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, our Bylaws require that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by, or other wrongdoing by, any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or to our stockholders, creditors or other constituents, (c) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our Certificate or Bylaws, (d) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our Certificate or Bylaws or (e) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although we believe this provision benefits the company by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers, employees or agents.
Authorized but Unissued Shares
The authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange. Our Board of Directors may issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish the number of shares to be included in each such series, and to fix the designations, powers, preferences, and rights of the share of each such series, and any qualifications limitations, or restrictions thereof. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued common stock and preferred stock could make more difficult, or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger, or otherwise.