Description of the Registrants Securities
DESCRIPTION OF REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
The following summary describes the material provisions of the common stock of Vroom, Inc. (“we”, “our”, the “Company”) that is registered under Section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and does not purport to be complete. For a complete description of the terms and provisions of our common stock, we urge you to read our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes capital stock consisting of:
500,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share; and
10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.
Certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws summarized below may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may delay or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock.
Holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors.
Holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor, subject to any statutory or contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends and to any restrictions on the payment of dividends imposed by the terms of any outstanding preferred stock.
In the event of our dissolution or liquidation, after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to the holders of preferred stock having liquidation preferences, if any, the holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the remaining assets legally available for distribution.
Rights and Preferences
Holders of our common stock do not have preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All shares of our common stock outstanding upon consummation of this offering will be fully paid and non-assessable.
Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, the total number of authorized shares of preferred stock is 10,000,000 shares. We have no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to direct us to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, powers, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.
The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may adversely affect the holders of our common stock by restricting dividends on the common stock, diluting the voting power of the common stock or subordinating the liquidation rights of the common stock. As a result of these or other factors, the issuance of preferred stock could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees or stockholders to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us, any director or our officers and employees arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or as to which the DGCL confers exclusive jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery; or (4) any action asserting a claim against us, any director or our officers or employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided that the exclusive forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act, or to any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selections of an alternative forum, the federal district courts are the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Declaration and payment of any dividend will be subject to the discretion of our board of directors. The time and amount of dividends will be dependent upon, among other things, our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, debt repayment obligations, capital expenditure needs, contractual restrictions, covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness, industry trends, the provisions of Delaware law affecting the payment of dividends and distributions to stockholders and any other factors or considerations our board of directors may regard as relevant.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) contain provisions that may delay, defer or discourage another party from acquiring control of us. We expect that these provisions, which are summarized below, will discourage coercive takeover practices or inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors, which we believe may result in an improvement of the terms of any such acquisition in favor of our stockholders. However, they also give our board of directors the power to discourage acquisitions that some stockholders may favor.
Stockholder Action; Special Meetings of Stockholders
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our amended and restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our amended and restated bylaws. Further, our amended and restated bylaws provide that only our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors or our chief executive officer may call special meetings of our stockholders, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.
Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations
In addition, our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Generally, in order for any matter to be “properly brought” before a meeting, the matter must be (a) specified in a notice of meeting given by or at the direction of our board of directors, (b) if not specified in a notice of meeting, otherwise brought before the meeting by our board of directors or the chairperson of the meeting, or (c) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder present in person who (1) was a stockholder both at the time of giving the notice and at the time of the meeting, (2) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (3) has complied with the advance notice procedures specified in the amended and restated bylaws or properly made such proposal in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, which proposal has been included in the proxy statement for the annual meeting. Further, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (a) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the secretary and (b) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by our amended and restated bylaws. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date, to be timely, notice by the stockholder must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not later than the 10th day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”).
Stockholders at a special meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or, in the case of our annual meetings, brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a qualified stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered Timely Notice as discussed above. These provisions could have the effect of delaying stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities until the next stockholder meeting.
Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws
Our amended and restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon. The affirmative vote of a majority of our board of directors and two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares entitled to vote thereon would be required to amend our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Section 203 of the DGCL
We are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, Section 203 prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the time of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:
the business combination or transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors prior to the time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by directors who are also officers of the corporation and shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
at or subsequent to the time the stockholder became an interested stockholder, the business combination was approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 662/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include mergers, asset sales and other transactions resulting in financial benefit to a stockholder and an “interested stockholder” as a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or, if such person is an affiliate or associate of the corporation, within three years did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock. These provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing changes in control of our company.
Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide indemnification and advancement of expenses for our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to certain limited exceptions. We have entered into separate indemnification agreements with each of our directors and our executive officers. In some cases, the provisions of our indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers may be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained under Delaware law. In addition, as permitted by Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation includes provisions that eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages resulting from breaches of certain fiduciary duties as a director. The effect of this provision is to restrict our rights and the rights of our stockholders in derivative suits to recover monetary damages against a director for breach of fiduciary duties as a director. This provision does not, however, eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages resulting from: (1) breach of the director’s duty of loyalty, (2) acts or omissions not in good faith that involve intentional misconduct or knowing violation of law, (3) an unlawful payment of dividends or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption, or (4) any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
These provisions may be held not to be enforceable for violations of the federal securities laws of the United States.
Dissenters’ Rights of Appraisal and Payment
Under the DGCL, with certain exceptions, our stockholders have appraisal rights in connection with a merger or consolidation of Vroom, Inc. Pursuant to Section 262 of the DGCL, stockholders who properly demand and perfect appraisal rights in connection with such merger or consolidation will have the right to receive payment of the fair value of their shares as determined by the Delaware Court of Chancery.
Stockholders’ Derivative Actions
Under the DGCL, any of our stockholders may bring an action in our name to procure a judgment in our favor, also known as a derivative action, provided that the stockholder bringing the action is a holder of our shares at the time of the transaction to which the action relates.
Trading Symbol and Market
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “VRM.”