EX-4.8 2 ex4_8.htm DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following is a summary of our capital stock and provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws. For more detailed information, please refer to our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws, which are filed, or incorporated by reference, as exhibits to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 675,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 75,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. As of February 11, 2020, there were 110,420,602 shares of common stock outstanding, and 0.85 shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding, convertible into 7,222,222 shares of common stock.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders, and do not have cumulative voting rights. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividend payments. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable. The holders of common stock have no preferences or rights of cumulative voting, conversion, or pre-emptive or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in any of our assets remaining after payment or provision for payment of all of our debts and obligations and after liquidation payments to holders of outstanding shares of preferred stock, if any.
Our preferred stock includes our Series B Convertible Preferred Stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further shareholder authorization, to issue from time to time shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the terms, limitations, relative rights and preferences and variations of each series. Although we have no present plans to issue additional shares of preferred stock, the issuance of shares of preferred stock, or the issuance of rights to purchase such shares, could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to the holders of common stock, could adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of the common stock, and could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control of us or an unsolicited acquisition proposal.
Series B Convertible Preferred Stock. Holders of our Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to participate pro rata with holders of common stock with respect to dividends and other distributions, including the distribution of assets upon liquidation. Each share of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible at any time into 8,496,732 shares of common stock; provided, that holders of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are prohibited from converting Series B Convertible Preferred Stock into shares of common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would own more than 4.99% of the total number of shares of common stock then issued and outstanding. Holders of our Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are not entitled to vote, except (i) as otherwise required by law and (ii) that each issued and outstanding share of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock is entitled to the number of votes equal to the number of shares of common stock into which each such share of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible in connection with (A) certain fundamental transactions or (B) the issuance by the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions or series of related transactions, of shares of common stock, options or convertible securities if, in the aggregate, the number of such shares of common stock together with the number of shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion or exercise, as applicable, of such options and convertible securities is more than 20% of the number of shares of common stock issued and outstanding prior to any such issuance.
Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated By-Laws
Provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, as amended, and our amended and restated by-laws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change of control or change in our management, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares, or transactions that our shareholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
Board of Directors; Removal of Directors for Cause. Our amended and restated by-laws provide for the election of directors to one-year terms at each annual meeting of the shareholders. All directors elected to our board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier resignation or removal. The board of directors is authorized to create new directorships, subject to the amended and restated articles of incorporation, and to fill such positions so created by a majority vote of the directors. Members of the board of directors may only be removed by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than two-thirds of the voting power of our issued and outstanding stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
Advance Notice Provisions for Shareholder Proposals and Shareholder Nominations of Directors. Our amended and restated by-laws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a shareholder before a meeting of shareholders, written notice of the nomination must be received by us not earlier than 120 days and not later than 90 days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the amended and restated by-laws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our by-law provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.
Special Meetings of Shareholders. Special meetings of the shareholders may be called only by our chairman of the board of directors pursuant to the requirements of our amended and restated by-laws.
Blank-Check Preferred Stock. Our board of directors will be authorized to issue, without shareholder approval, preferred stock, the rights of which will be determined at the discretion of the board of directors and that, if issued, could operate as a “poison pill” to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer to prevent an acquisition that our board of directors does not approve.
Series A Convertible Preferred Stock
Pursuant to our amended and restated articles of incorporation, we are authorized to issue 37,564,767 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. As of February 11, 2020, we have no shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding.
Nevada Anti-Takeover Statutes
The following provisions of the Nevada Revised Statutes (“NRS”) could, if applicable, have the effect of discouraging takeovers of our company.
Transactions with Interested Stockholders. The NRS prohibits a publicly-traded Nevada company from engaging in any business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder unless, prior to that date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination itself or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder.
An “interested stockholder” is defined as any entity or person beneficially owning, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with, controlling, or controlled by any of these entities or persons. The definition of “business combination” is sufficiently broad to cover virtually any type of transaction that would allow a potential acquirer to use the corporation’s assets to finance the acquisition or otherwise benefit its own interests rather than the interests of the corporation and its stockholders.
In addition, business combinations that are not approved and therefore take place after the three year waiting period may also be prohibited unless approved by the board of directors and stockholders or the price to be paid by the interested stockholder is equal to the highest of (i) the highest price per share paid by the interested stockholder within the 3 years immediately preceding the date of the announcement of the business combination or in the transaction in which he or she became an interested stockholder, whichever is higher; (ii) the market value per common share on the date of announcement of the business combination or the date the interested stockholder acquired the shares, whichever is higher; or (iii) if higher for the holders of preferred stock, the highest liquidation value of the preferred stock.
Acquisition of a Controlling Interest. The NRS contains provisions governing the acquisition of a “controlling interest” and provides generally that any person that acquires 20% or more of the outstanding voting shares of an “issuing corporation,” defined as Nevada corporation that has 200 or more stockholders at least 100 of whom are Nevada residents (as set forth in the corporation’s stock ledger); and does business in Nevada directly or through an affiliated corporation, may be denied voting rights with respect to the acquired shares, unless a majority of the disinterested stockholder of the corporation elects to restore such voting rights in whole or in part.
The statute focuses on the acquisition of a “controlling interest” defined as the ownership of outstanding shares sufficient, but for the control share law, to enable the acquiring person, directly or indirectly and individually or in association with others, to exercise (i) one-fifth or more, but less than one-third; (ii) one-third or more, but less than a majority; or (iii) a majority or more of the voting power of the corporation in the election of directors.
The question of whether or not to confer voting rights may only be considered once by the stockholders and once a decision is made, it cannot be revisited. In addition, unless a corporation’s articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise (i) acquired voting securities are redeemable in whole or in part by the issuing corporation at the average price paid for the securities within 30 days if the acquiring person has not given a timely information statement to the issuing corporation or if the stockholders vote not to grant voting rights to the acquiring person’s securities; and (ii) if voting rights are granted to the acquiring person, then any stockholder who voted against the grant of voting rights may demand purchase from the issuing corporation, at fair value, of all or any portion of their securities.
The provisions of this section do not apply to acquisitions made pursuant to the laws of descent and distribution, the enforcement of a judgment, or the satisfaction of a security interest, or acquisitions made in connection with certain mergers or reorganizations.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is West Coast Stock Transfer, Inc.
Reverse Stock Split
On November 19, 2019, our stockholders approved a reverse stock split within the range of 1-for-25 to 1-for-120 of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock and authorized the Board, in its discretion, to determine the final ratio, effective date, and date of filing of the certificate of amendment to our articles of incorporation, as amended, in connection with the reverse stock split. The reverse stock split will not impact the number of authorized shares of common stock which will remain at 675,000,000 shares. As of February 11, 2020, the Board has not effected the reverse stock split, and all option, share and per share information in this description does not give effect to the reverse stock split.