Description of Securities

EX-4.1 2 ex4-1.htm


Exhibit 4.1



We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada on April 28, 2016. We are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share and 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.


Common Stock


Our articles of incorporation authorize the issuance of 100,000,000 shares of Common Stock. The holders of our Common Stock:


  have equal ratable rights to dividends from funds legally available for payment of dividends when, as and if declared by the board of directors;
  are entitled to share ratably in all of the assets available for distribution to holders of Common Stock upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;
  do not have preemptive, subscription or conversion rights, or redemption or access to any sinking fund; and
  are entitled to one non-cumulative vote per share on all matters submitted to stockholders for a vote at any meeting of stockholders.


Authorized but Unissued Capital Stock


Nevada law does not require stockholder approval for the issuance of authorized shares. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital or to facilitate corporate acquisitions.


One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock (or preferred stock) may be to enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of our board by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive the stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of our common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.


Shareholder Matters


As an issuer of “penny stock” the protection provided by the federal securities laws relating to forward looking statements does not apply to us if our shares are considered to be penny stocks (which they currently are and probably will be for the foreseeable future). Although the federal securities law provide a safe harbor for forward-looking statements made by a public company that files reports under the federal securities laws, this safe harbor is not available to issuers of penny stocks. As a result, we will not have the benefit of this safe harbor protection in the event of any claim that the material provided by us, including this prospectus, contained a material misstatement of fact or was misleading in any material respect because of our failure to include any statements necessary to make the statements not misleading.


As a Nevada corporation, we are subject to the Nevada Revised Statutes (“NRS” or “Nevada law”). Certain provisions of Nevada law described below create rights that might be deemed material to our shareholders. Other provisions might delay or make more difficult acquisitions of our stock or changes in our control or might also have the effect of preventing changes in our management or might make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that some of our shareholders may believe to be in their best interests.




Common Stock Equivalents


We have issued and may continue to issue common stock equivalents, including, but not limited to, stock option awards under our equity incentive plans, warrants to acquire shares of our common stock, preferred stock and notes convertible into shares of our common stock.


Selected Provisions of the Nevada Revised Statutes


Directors’ Duties. Section 78.138 of the Nevada law allows our directors and officers, in exercising their powers to further our interests, to consider the interests of our employees, suppliers, creditors and shippers. They can also consider the economy of the state and the nation, the interests of the community and of society and our long-term and short-term interests and shareholders, including the possibility that these interests may be best served by our continued independence. Our directors may resist a change or potential change in control if they, by a majority vote of a quorum, determine that the change or potential change is opposed to or not in our best interest. Our board of directors may consider these interests or have reasonable grounds to believe that, within a reasonable time, any debt which might be created as a result of the change in control would cause our assets to be less than our liabilities, render us insolvent, or cause us to file for bankruptcy protection.


Dissenters’ Rights. Among the rights granted under Nevada law which might be considered material is the right for shareholders to dissent from certain corporate actions and obtain payment for their shares (see NRS 92A.380-390). This right is subject to exceptions, summarized below, and arises in the event of mergers or plans of exchange. This right normally applies if shareholder approval of the corporate action is required either by Nevada law or by the terms of the articles of incorporation.


A shareholder does not have the right to dissent with respect to any plan of merger or exchange, if the shares held by the shareholder are part of a class of shares which are:


  listed on a national securities exchange,


  included in the national market system by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), or


  held of record by not less than 2,000 holders.


This exception notwithstanding, a shareholder will still have a right of dissent if it is provided for in the articles of incorporation or if the shareholders are required under the plan of merger or exchange to accept anything but cash or owner’s interests, or a combination of the two, in the surviving or acquiring entity, or in any other entity falling in any of the three categories described above in this paragraph.


Inspection Rights. Nevada law also specifies that shareholders are to have the right to inspect company records (see NRS 78.105). This right extends to any person who has been a shareholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding his demand. It also extends to any person holding, or authorized in writing by the holders of, at least 5% of outstanding shares. Shareholders having this right are to be granted inspection rights upon five days’ written notice. The records covered by this right include official copies of:


  the articles of incorporation, and all amendments thereto,
  bylaws and all amendments thereto; and
  a stock ledger or a duplicate stock ledger, revised annually, containing the names, alphabetically arranged, of all persons who are stockholders of the corporation, showing their places of residence, if known, and the number of shares held by them, respectively.


In lieu of the stock ledger or duplicate stock ledger, Nevada law provides that the corporation may keep a statement setting out the name of the custodian of the stock ledger or duplicate stock ledger, and the present and complete post office address, including street and number, if any, where the stock ledger or duplicate stock ledger specified in this section is kept.




Control Share Acquisitions. Sections 78.378 to 78.3793 of Nevada law contain provisions that may prevent any person acquiring a controlling interest in a Nevada-registered company from exercising voting rights. To the extent that these rights support the voting power of minority shareholders, these rights may also be deemed material. These provisions will be applicable to us as soon as we have 200 shareholders of record with at least 100 of these having addresses in Nevada as reflected on our stock ledger. While we do not yet have the required number of shareholders in Nevada or elsewhere, it is possible that at some future point we will reach these numbers and, accordingly, these provisions will become applicable. We do not intend to notify shareholders when we have reached the number of shareholders specified under these provisions of Nevada law. Shareholders can learn this information pursuant to the inspection rights described above and can see the approximate number of our shareholders by checking under Item 5 of our most recent annual report on Form 10-K. You can view these and our other filings at in the “EDGAR” database.


Under NRS Sections 78.378 to 78.3793, an acquiring person who acquires a controlling interest in company shares may not exercise voting rights on any of these shares unless these voting rights are granted by a majority vote of our disinterested shareholders at a special shareholders’ meeting held upon the request and at the expense of the acquiring person. If the acquiring person’s shares are accorded full voting rights and the acquiring person acquires control shares with a majority or more of all the voting power, any shareholder, other than the acquiring person, who does not vote for authorizing voting rights for the control shares, is entitled to demand payment for the fair value of their shares, and we must comply with the demand. An “acquiring person” means any person who, individually or acting with others, acquires or offers to acquire, directly or indirectly, a controlling interest in our shares. “Controlling interest” means the ownership of our outstanding voting shares sufficient to enable the acquiring person, individually or acting with others, directly or indirectly, to exercise one-fifth or more but less than one-third, one-third or more but less than a majority, or a majority or more of the voting power of our shares in the election of our directors. Voting rights must be given by a majority of our disinterested shareholders as each threshold is reached or exceeded. “Control shares” means the company’s outstanding voting shares that an acquiring person acquires or offers to acquire in an acquisition or within 90 days immediately preceding the date when the acquiring person becomes an acquiring person.


These Nevada statutes do not apply if a company’s articles of incorporation or bylaws in effect on the tenth day following the acquisition of a controlling interest by an acquiring person provide that these provisions do not apply.


According to NRS 78.378, the provisions referred to above will not restrict our directors from taking action to protect the interests of our company and its shareholders, including without limitation, adopting or executing plans, arrangements or instruments that deny rights, privileges, power or authority to a holder of a specified number of shares or percentage of share ownership or voting power. Likewise, these provisions do not prevent directors or shareholders from including stricter requirements in our articles of incorporation or bylaws relating to the acquisition of a controlling interest in the company.


Our articles of incorporation and bylaws do not exclude us from the restrictions imposed by NRS 78.378 to 78.3793, nor do they impose any more stringent requirements.


Certain Business Combinations. Sections 78.411 to 78.444 of the Nevada law may restrict our ability to engage in a wide variety of transactions with an “interested shareholder.” As was discussed above in connection with NRS 78.378 to 78.3793, these provisions could be considered material to our shareholders, particularly to minority shareholders. They might also have the effect of delaying or making more difficult acquisitions of our stock or changes in our control. These sections of NRS are applicable to any Nevada company with 200 or more stockholders of record and that has a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the 1934 Securities Exchange Act, unless the company’s articles of incorporation provide otherwise.




These provisions of Nevada law prohibit us from engaging in any “combination” with an interested stockholder for three years after the interested stockholder acquired the shares that cause him/her to become an interested shareholder, unless he had prior approval of our board of directors. The term “combination” is described in NRS 78.416 and includes, among other things, mergers, sales or purchases of assets, and issuances or reclassifications of securities. If the combination did not have prior approval, the interested shareholder may proceed after the three-year period only if the shareholder receives approval from a majority of our disinterested shares or the offer meets the requirements for fairness that are specified in NRS 78.441-42. For the above provisions, a “resident domestic corporation” means a Nevada corporation that has 200 or more shareholders. An “interested stockholder” is defined in NSR 78.423 as someone who is either:


  the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our outstanding voting shares; or


  our affiliate or associate and who within three years immediately before the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our outstanding shares at that time.


Amendments to Bylaws


Our articles of incorporation provide that the power to adopt, alter, amend, or repeal our bylaws is vested exclusively with the board of directors. In exercising this discretion, our board of directors could conceivably alter our bylaws in ways that would affect the rights of our shareholders and the ability of any shareholder or group to effect a change in our control; however, the board would not have the right to do so in a way that would violate law or the applicable terms of our articles of incorporation.


Transfer Agent


The transfer agent for our common stock is Action Stock Transfer Corporation, 2469 E. Fort Union Blvd, Suite 214, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121. Its telephone number is ###-###-####.