Description of Registrants Securities

EX-4.5 2 tm205390d1_ex4-5.htm EXHIBIT 4.5

Exhibit 4.5




Ideal Power (the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) has one class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended: our common stock, par value $0.001 per share (our “common stock”).





The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, as amended to date (our “certificate of incorporation”), our certificate of designation of preferences, rights and limitations of Series A convertible preferred stock (our “certificate of designation”), our bylaws, as amended to date (our “bylaws”), and applicable provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). This summary is not complete. You should read our certificate of incorporation (including the certificate of amendment thereto), our certificate of designation and our bylaws, which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for the provisions that are important to you.


Authorized Capital Stock


Our certificate of incorporation provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. 3,000,000 shares of our authorized preferred stock have been designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”).


Common Stock


Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each such share outstanding in the holder’s name. No holder of common stock is entitled to cumulate votes in voting for directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock will be entitled to elect all of the directors standing for election.


Holders of our common stock are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors (our “Board”) out of funds legally available for such purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any then outstanding preferred stock.


In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive pro rata our assets, which are legally available for distribution, after payments of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any holders of preferred stock then outstanding.


The shares of common stock are neither redeemable nor convertible. Holders of common stock have no preemptive or subscription rights to purchase any of our securities. The shares of common stock are not subject to further calls or assessment by us. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All of the outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.


Preferred Stock




Our certificate of incorporation provides that our Board has the authority, without any further action by our stockholders, to designate and issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more classes or series and to fix the powers, rights, preferences, and privileges of each class or series of preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences and the number of shares constituting any class or series, which may be greater than the rights of the holders of the common stock.


The purpose of authorizing our Board to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a shareholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may adversely affect the holders of our common stock by restricting dividends on our common stock, diluting the voting power of our common stock or subordinating the liquidation rights of our common stock. As a result of these or other factors, the issuance of preferred stock could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock.





Series A Preferred Stock


On February 23, 2017, we filed our certificate of designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware creating our Series A Preferred Stock and establishing the designations, preferences, and other rights of the Series A Preferred Stock, which became effective upon filing.


On February 24, 2017, we entered into a purchase agreement with the institutional and other accredited investors identified therein, relating to a private placement of our common stock and warrants to purchase shares of common stock (the “2017 Private Placement”). We also agreed to sell to investors whose purchase of common stock would have resulted in such investor, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 9.99% of our outstanding common stock immediately following the consummation of the offering, an aggregate of 708,430 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. As a result of the reverse stock split of the outstanding shares of our common stock by a ratio of one-for-ten, which was effected on August 15, 2019 (the “Reverse Stock Split”), each share of Series A Preferred Stock was convertible, subject to certain beneficial ownership limitations described below, into shares of common stock on a ten-for-one basis (the “Conversion Shares”). The 708,430 shares of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into 70,843 shares of common stock in February 2019.


In addition, on February 24, 2017, we entered into an exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with certain affiliates of AWM Investment Company (the “Exchanging Stockholders”), pursuant to which we effected the exchange of 810,000 shares of common stock held by the Exchanging Stockholders for 810,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Pursuant to the terms of the Series A Preferred Stock and as a result of the Reverse Stock Split, the Exchanging Stockholders had the right to convert the Series A Preferred Stock into shares of common stock on a ten-for-one basis, subject to adjustment in the event of stock splits, recapitalizations and other similar events; provided, however, that the Series A Preferred Stock could not be converted by the Exchanging Stockholders if, after giving effect thereto, the Exchanging Stockholders would beneficially own more than 9.99% of our common stock (the “Conversion Limitation”), The Conversion Limitation could have been increased or decreased by the Exchanging Stockholders, but in no event would it exceed 9.99%, in each case calculated as provided in the certificate of designation establishing the Series A Preferred Stock.


Our Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to our common stock with respect to dividend rights and rights on liquidation, winding-up and dissolution. Our Series A Preferred Stock has a stated value of $2.535. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive dividends declared or paid on our common stock. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock do not have the right to vote on any matter except to the extent required by Delaware law.


The 810,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into 81,000 shares of common stock in December 2019.


Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents


Provisions of Delaware law and our charter documents could have the effect of delaying or preventing a third party from acquiring us, even if the acquisition would benefit our stockholders. These provisions may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt of our Company that a stockholder might consider in his, her or its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our Board and in the policies formulated by the Board and to discourage types of transactions that may involve our actual or threatened change of control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited proposal for a takeover that does not contemplate the acquisition of all of our outstanding shares, or an unsolicited proposal for the restructuring or sale of all or part of us.


Effect of Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute. We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, an anti-takeover law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination (as defined below) with any interested stockholder (as defined below) for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:


·prior to that date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;





·upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares of voting stock outstanding (but not the voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned by persons who are directors and officers and by excluding employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or


·on or subsequent to that date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.


Section 203 defines “business combination” to include the following:


·any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;


·any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;


·subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;


·subject to limited exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or


·the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.


In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, or who beneficially owns 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation at any time within a three-year period immediately prior to the date of determining whether such person is an interested stockholder, and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by any of these entities or persons.


Our Charter Documents.


Effects of authorized but unissued common stock and blank check preferred stock. One of the effects of the existence of authorized but unissued common stock and undesignated preferred stock may be to enable our Board to make more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of our Company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby to protect the continuity of management. If, in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, the Board were to determine that a takeover proposal was not in our best interest, such shares could be issued by the Board without stockholder approval in one or more transactions that might prevent or render more difficult or costly the completion of the takeover transaction by diluting the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder group, by putting a substantial voting block in institutional or other hands that might undertake to support the position of the incumbent Board, by effecting an acquisition that might complicate or preclude the takeover, or otherwise.


In addition, our certificate of incorporation grants our Board broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of additional shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance also may adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of those holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of our Company.


Cumulative Voting. Our certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would allow holders of less than a majority of the stock to elect some directors.


No Stockholder Action by Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation expressly prohibits stockholders from acting by written consent. This means that stockholders may only act at annual or special meetings.





Vacancies. Our certificate of incorporation provides that all vacancies may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum.


Special Meeting of Stockholders. A special meeting of stockholders may only be called by the chairman of the Board, the chief executive officer, or the Board at any time and for any purpose or purposes as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting, and shall be called by the secretary upon the written request of the holders of record of at least 25% of the outstanding shares of common stock. This provision could prevent stockholders from calling a special meeting because, unless certain significant stockholders were to join with them, they might not obtain the percentage necessary to request the meeting. Therefore, stockholders holding less than 25% of the issued and outstanding common stock, without the assistance of management, may be unable to propose a vote on any transaction that would delay, defer or prevent a change of control, even if the transaction were in the best interests of our stockholders.


Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws have advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and nominations of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of our Board or a committee of our Board. The business to be conducted at a meeting will be limited to business properly brought before the meeting, in accordance with our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. Failure to follow the procedures set forth in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws will result in the chairman of the meeting disregarding the nomination or declaring that the proposed business will not be transacted.


Transfer Agent and Registrar


Our transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Corporate Stock Transfer, Inc.




Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “IPWR.”