Description of the Capital Stock
DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
DESCRIPTION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our Capital Stock is a summary and does not purport to be complete. It is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation (the “Articles of Incorporation”) and our Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”), each of which are incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are currently authorized to issue up to 195,000,000 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value. As of March 31, 2022 18,850,675 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding, and held of record by approximately 48 persons, and no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.
Holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to such dividends as may be declared from time to time by the board in its discretion, on a ratable basis, out of funds legally available therefrom, and to a pro rata share of all assets available for distribution upon liquidation, dissolution or other winding up of our affairs. All of the outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.
On January 27, 2016, we filed an amendment of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, to effect a 1-for-15 reverse stock split of our common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The Reverse Stock Split became effective in the stock market upon commencement of trading on January 28, 2016. As a result of the Reverse Stock Split, every 15 shares of our pre-Reverse Stock Split common stock were combined and reclassified into one share of our common stock. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the Reverse Stock Split, and cash paid to stockholders for potential fractional shares was insignificant. The number of shares of common stock subject to outstanding options, restricted stock units, warrants and convertible securities were also reduced by a factor of 15 as of January 27, 2016. All historical share and per share amounts reflected throughout this prospectus have been adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split. The authorized number of shares and the par value per share of our common stock were not affected by the Reverse Stock Split.
We have issued and outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate 248,216 of our common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share. The warrants expire on May 21, 2023. The exercise price of the warrants is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, such as a split or combination of our common stock or a reorganization or merger to which we are a party. Holders of our outstanding warrants will receive one right in this offering for each of the shares of common stock into which each warrant would otherwise be exercisable as set forth on the face of the warrants held by each holder.
Our certificate of incorporation permits us to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and with rights and preferences that may be fixed or designated by our board of directors without any further action by our stockholders. On February 16, 2018, in connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement, we filed a Certificate of Designation authorizing 500,000 shares of Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock. We currently have no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Subject to the limitations prescribed in our certificate of incorporation and under Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors, from time to time by resolution and without further stockholder action, to provide for the issuance of shares of preferred stock, in one or more series, and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and other rights of the shares and to fix the qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof. Although our board of directors has no present intention to issue any additional preferred stock, the issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the rights of holders of our common stock, including with respect to voting, dividends and liquidation, by issuing shares of preferred stock with certain voting, conversion and/or redemption rights. Such issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents
The following is a summary of certain provisions of Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws. This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the corporate law of Delaware and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws.
Board of Directors; Removal. Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, the number of directors is fixed by our board of directors. Our directors each serve one-year terms. Vacancies on our board of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining members of the board of directors, even if less than a quorum, and a director may only be removed from office by stockholders upon the approval of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote at an election of directors.
Stockholder Meetings; Bylaws. Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action taken by our stockholders must be effected at an annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be taken by written consent instead of a meeting. In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the board of directors or the holders of at least 50% of the outstanding shares of capital stock. Our bylaws may be amended either by the board of directors or the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the entitled to vote at an election of directors.
Rights Agreement. On February 16, 2018, the Company entered into a Rights Agreement with American Stock Transfer & Trust, LLC, as rights agent. In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement, each stockholder of the Company as of February 26, 2018 received one right for each outstanding share of common stock, which entitles the stockholder to purchase from the Company one one-thousandth of a share of Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Stock”) at an exercise price of $1.00 per one one-thousandth of Preferred Stock. The Rights Agreement, as amended on November 2, 2018, effectively imposes a significant penalty upon any person or group that acquires 4.9% or more of the shares of Common Stock without the approval of the Board. As a result, the overall effect of the Rights Agreement and the issuance of the Rights may be to render more difficult or discourage a merger, tender or exchange offer or other business combination involving the Company that is not approved by the Board.
Limitation of Liability
As permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, our certificate of incorporation provides that our directors shall not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability:
|●||for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;|
|●||for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;|
|●||under section 174 of the Delaware law, relating to unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock purchases or redemption of stock; and|
|●||for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.|
As a result of this provision, we and our stockholders may be unable to obtain monetary damages from a director for breach of his or her duty of care.
Our certificate of incorporation provides for the indemnification of our directors and officers to the fullest extent authorized by, and subject to the conditions set forth in the Delaware law.
Delaware Anti-Takeover Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:
|●||prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;|
|●||upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (a) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (b) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or|
|●||on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66-2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.|
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:
|●||any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;|
|●||any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;|
|●||subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; and|
|●||the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.|
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation or any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.