EX-4.2 2 grtx-ex42_236.htm EX-4.2 grtx-ex42_236.htm
DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, AS AMENDED
As of December 31, 2019, Galera Therapeutics, Inc. had one class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). References herein to “we,” “us,” “our” and the “Company” refer to Galera Therapeutics, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries.
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock and certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, each of which has been publicly filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Our authorized capital stock consists of 210,000,000 shares, all with a par value of $0.001 per share, of which:
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200,000,000 shares are designated as common stock; and
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10,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to direct us to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.
The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third-party to acquire, or could discourage a third-party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock.
The second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement by and among us and certain of our stockholders (the “Investors’ Rights Agreement”) grants the parties thereto certain registration rights in respect of the “Registrable Securities” held by them, which securities include (1) the shares of our common stock issuable or issued upon the conversion of shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock, (2) any shares of our common stock, or any common stock issued or issuable
upon conversion and/or exercise of any of our securities acquired by the parties after the date of the Investors’ Rights Agreement, and (3) any shares of our common stock issued as a dividend or other distribution with respect to the shares described in the foregoing clauses (1) and (2). The registration of shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of these registration rights would enable the holders thereof to sell such shares without restriction under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. Under the Investors’ Rights Agreement, we will pay all expenses relating to such registrations, including the reasonable fees of one special counsel for the participating holders, and the holders will pay all underwriting discounts and commissions relating to the sale of their shares. The Investors’ Rights Agreement also includes customary indemnification and procedural terms.
These registration rights will expire on the earlier of (1) November 12, 2024, (2) with respect to each stockholder, at such time as such stockholder can sell all of its shares pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act or another similar exemption under the Securities Act during any three month period without registration, and (3) the closing of a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the Investors’ Rights Agreement.
Demand Registration Rights
At any time after May 4, 2020, the holders of not less than 30% of the Registrable Securities then outstanding may, on not more than two occasions, request that we prepare, file and maintain a registration statement on Form S-1 to register the Registrable Securities of such holders if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of underwriting discounts and commissions, would be at least $10.0 million. Once we are eligible to use a registration statement on Form S-3, the stockholders party to the Investors’ Rights Agreement may, on not more than two occasions in any 12-month period, request that we prepare, file and maintain a registration statement on Form S-3 covering the sale of their Registrable Securities, but only if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of underwriting discounts and commissions, would exceed $1.0 million.
Piggyback Registration Rights
In the event that we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the stockholders party to the Investors’ Rights Agreement will be entitled to certain “piggyback” registration rights allowing them to include their Registrable Securities in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations. As a result, whenever we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act other than with respect to a demand registration or a registration statement on Form S-4 or S-8 or a registration in which the only common stock being registered is common stock issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are also being registered, these holders will be entitled to notice of the registration and will have the right to include their Registrable Securities in the registration subject to certain limitations.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Some provisions of Delaware law, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
The ability of our board of directors, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our board of directors could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer), or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals
Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.
Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.
Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.
Removal of Directors
Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that no member of our board of directors may be removed from office by our stockholders except for cause and, in addition to any other vote required by law, upon the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors.
Stockholders Not Entitled to Cumulative Voting
Our restated certificate of incorporation will not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of our preferred stock may be entitled to elect.
Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute
We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which prohibits persons deemed to be “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors.
Choice of Forum
Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative form, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty or other wrongdoing by any of our directors, officers, employees or stockholders to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Under our restated certificate of incorporation, this exclusive forum provision will not apply to claims which are vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or for which the Court of Chancery of the State of
Delaware does not have subject matter jurisdiction. For instance, the provision would not apply to actions arising under federal securities laws, including suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, Exchange Act, or the rules and regulations thereunder. This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.
Amendment of Charter Provisions
The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock and the provision prohibiting cumulative voting, would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote thereon. The provisions of Delaware law, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Limitations on Liability and Indemnification Matters
Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provides that we will indemnify each of our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that may, in some cases, be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained under Delaware law. Further, we agreed to indemnify each of our directors and executive officers against certain liabilities, costs and expenses, and we have purchased a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our directors and executive officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment under certain circumstances. In addition, as permitted by Delaware law, our restated certificate of incorporation will include provisions that eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages resulting from breaches of certain fiduciary duties as a director. The effect of this provision is to restrict our rights and the rights of our stockholders in derivative suits to recover monetary damages against a director for breach of fiduciary duties as a director.
These provisions may be held not to be enforceable for violations of the federal securities laws of the United States.
Our common stock has been approved for listing on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “GRTX.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.