Description of Capital Stock
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of the capital stock of Chiasma, Inc. (us, our, we or the Company) is a summary of the rights of our common stock and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws currently in effect. This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws, each previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this Exhibit 4.5 is a part, as well as to the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the DGCL). We encourage you to read our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the applicable portions of the DGCL carefully.
Authorized Capital Stock
Our authorized capital stock consists of 125,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.
The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by the board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. The shares to be issued by us in this offering will be, when issued and paid for, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our Company or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
The holders of our registrable shares, as described in our Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement, dated December 16, 2014 (the Investor Rights Agreement) are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such shares under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of the Investor Rights Agreement, and include demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights. All fees, costs and expenses of underwritten registrations will be borne by us and all selling expenses, including underwriting discounts and selling commissions, will be borne by the holders of the shares being registered.
Demand registration rights
Certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the Investor Rights Agreement, we are required, upon the written request of holders of at least 25% of the shares of our common stock issued upon conversion of our Series E Preferred Stock, to use our best efforts to effect the registration of such shares, subject to certain exceptions. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision.
Form S-3 Registration Rights
Certain holders of shares of our common stock are also entitled to short form registration rights. If we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of certain holders of our common stock to register shares with an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $3,000,000, we are required to use our best efforts to effect a registration of such shares, subject to certain exceptions.
Piggyback registration rights
Certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to piggyback registration rights. If we propose to register any of our securities, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration, and if such holders exercise their right to be included in such registration, we will be required to use our best efforts to include them in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions, the managing underwriter may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering if it concludes that marketing factors require such a limitation.
The Investor Rights Agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.
Expiration of registration rights
The registration rights granted under the Investor Rights Agreement will terminate on the earliest of (i) the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, (ii) the date on which no stockholder party to the Investor Rights Agreement holds any Registrable Shares (as defined therein) or (iii) a Company Sale (as defined therein).
Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions that are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the board of directors and which may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a future takeover or change in control of the company unless such takeover or change in control is approved by the board of directors. These provisions include the items described below.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board of directors will be divided into three classes of directors, with the classes as nearly equal in number as possible. As a result, approximately one-third of our board of directors will be elected each year. The classification of directors will have the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that, subject to any rights of holders of preferred stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the number of directors will be fixed exclusively pursuant to a resolution adopted by our board of directors. Our board of directors currently has eight members.
Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings of Stockholders
Our certificate of incorporation provides that stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders and cannot be taken by written consent in lieu of a meeting. Our certificate of incorporation and the bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders can be called only by or at the direction of the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of directors. Stockholders are not permitted to call a special meeting or to require the board of directors to call a special meeting.
Removal of Directors
Our certificate of incorporation provides that our directors may be removed only for cause by the affirmative vote of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors, voting together as a single class, at a meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose. This requirement of a supermajority vote to remove directors could enable a minority of our stockholders to prevent a change in the composition of our board.
Advance Notice Procedures
Our bylaws provide an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to the board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the board of directors or by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has given our Secretary timely written notice, in proper form, of the stockholders intention to bring that business before the meeting. Although the bylaws do not give the board of directors the power to approve or disapprove stockholder nominations of candidates or proposals regarding other business to be conducted at a special or annual meeting, the bylaws may have the effect of precluding the conduct of certain business at a meeting if the proper procedures are not followed or may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.
Super Majority Approval Requirements
The Delaware General Corporation Law generally provides that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporations certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless either a corporations certificate of incorporation or bylaws requires a greater percentage. A majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of holders of at least 75% of the total votes of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote with respect thereto, voting together as a single class, will be required to amend, alter, change or repeal the bylaws. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the total votes of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote with respect thereto, voting together as a single class, is required to amend, alter, change or repeal, or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with, any of the provisions in our certificate of incorporation relating to amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and as described under Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings of Stockholders, Classified Board and Removal of Directors above. This requirement of a supermajority vote to approve amendments to our bylaws and certificate of incorporation could enable a minority of our stockholders to exercise veto power over any such amendments.
Authorized but Unissued Shares
Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval. These additional shares may be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital and corporate acquisitions. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of a majority of our common stock by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the state or federal courts located in the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, or (iv) any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or
otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above. Although we believe these provisions benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law for the specified types of actions and proceedings, the provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with one or more actions or proceedings described above, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:
before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or
at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;
subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges, or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol CHMA.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.