DESCRIPTION OF REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURUSANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Our charter authorizes the issuance of one billion shares of stock, of which 900 million shares are designated as common stock with a par value of $0.01 per share, and 100 million shares are designated as preferred stock with a par value of $0.01 per share. Our board of directors may amend our charter from time to time without stockholder approval to increase or decrease the aggregate number of our authorized shares or the number of shares of any class or series that we have authority to issue. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts and obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
Except as may otherwise be specified in our charter, the holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters voted on by stockholders, including election of our directors. Our charter does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Therefore, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect our entire board of directors. Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding class or series of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to such distributions as may be authorized from time to time by our board of directors and declared by us out of legally available funds and, upon liquidation, are entitled to receive all assets available for distribution to our stockholders. Holders of shares of common stock will not have preemptive rights, which means that you will not have an automatic option to purchase any new shares that we issue. Holders of common stock will not have appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights.
We currently have no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Our charter authorizes the issuance of 100 million shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our common and preferred stock into one or more classes or series of stock, and to issue such classified or reclassified stock, without stockholder approval. Our board of directors must determine the relative rights, preferences and privileges of each class or series of stock so issued, which may be more beneficial than the rights, preferences and privileges attributable to the common stock. The issuance of such stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control.
Any shares of preferred stock may be issued as one or more new classes or series of shares of preferred stock, the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of which will be fixed by articles supplementary relating to each class or series.
Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of classes or series of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of common stockholders. The issuance of shares of preferred stock, which may provide flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, and may cause the market price of shares of common stock to decline or impair the voting and other rights of the holders of shares of common stock.
Unless otherwise provided by our board of directors, we will not issue shares in certificated form. We maintain a stock ledger that contains the name and address of each stockholder of record and the number of shares that the stockholder holds. With respect to uncertificated stock, we will continue to treat the stockholder registered on our stock
ledger as the owner of the shares until the new owner delivers a properly executed form to us, which form we will provide to any registered holder upon request.
Meetings, Special Voting Requirements and Access to Records
An annual meeting of the stockholders will be held each year, on the date and at the time and place set by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors, the chairman of the board, the president or the chief executive officer, and, subject to certain procedural requirements set forth in our bylaws, must be called by our secretary to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at the special meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting on any matter constitutes a quorum. Generally, the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to approve any matter which may properly come before the meeting, unless more than a majority of the votes cast is required by statute or by our charter. With respect to uncontested director elections, a nominee for director shall be elected as a director only if such nominee receives the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast for and against such nominee at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present. However, in contested elections directors shall be elected by a plurality of votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present.
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter provides for a majority vote in these situations.
Stockholders may, by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors, remove a director from our board.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
In order for us to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or the Code, to include certain entities. In addition, the outstanding shares must be owned by 100 or more persons independent of us and each other during at least 335 days of a 12-month taxable year or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year.
We may prohibit certain acquisitions and transfers of shares so as to ensure our continued qualification as a REIT under the Code. However, we cannot assure you that this prohibition will be effective.
Our charter contains limitations on ownership that prohibit any person or group of persons from acquiring, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of more than 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock, or more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may, subject to certain conditions, prospectively or retroactively exempt a person or group of persons from these ownership limitations and establish or increase an excepted holder limit for such person or group of persons. However, the board may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by the board for exemption, a person also must agree that any violation or attempted violation of these restrictions or any representation or undertakings on which the board of directors conditioned such exemption or excepted holder limit will result in the automatic transfer of the shares of stock causing the violation to a trust. The board of directors may require a ruling from the IRS or an opinion of counsel in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT.
Our charter further prohibits (1) any person from owning shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT and (2) any person from transferring shares of our stock if the transfer would result in our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons. Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire shares of our stock that may violate any of these restrictions, or who is the intended transferee of shares of our stock that are transferred to the trust, as described below, is required to give us immediate written notice or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, at least 15 days prior written notice and provide us with such information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the transfer on our status as a REIT. The above restrictions will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT and files with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland a certificate of notice setting forth such determination by the board of directors or if our board of directors determines that compliance is no longer required for REIT qualification.
Any attempted transfer of our stock which, if effective, would result in our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be null and void and the proposed transferee will acquire no rights in the shares. Any attempted transfer of our stock which, if effective, would result in violation of the ownership limits discussed above or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT will cause the number of shares causing the violation (rounded to the nearest whole share) to be automatically transferred to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries, and the proposed transferee will not acquire any rights in the shares. The automatic transfer will be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the transfer. If the transfer to the trust would not be effective for any reason to prevent the violation of such limitations, then the transfer of that number of shares that otherwise would cause such violation will be null and void and the proposed transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. Shares of our stock held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The proposed transferee will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of stock held in the trust, will have no rights to distributions and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of stock held in the trust. The trustee of the trust will have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee. Any dividend or distribution paid to the trustee will be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary. Subject to Maryland law, the trustee will have the authority (1) to rescind as void any vote cast by the proposed transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust and (2) to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee will not have the authority to rescind and recast the vote.
Within 20 days of receiving notice from us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will sell the shares to a person designated by the trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the above ownership limitations. Upon the sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and to the charitable beneficiary as follows. The proposed transferee will receive the lesser of (1) the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares or, if the proposed transferee did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other similar transaction), the “market price” (as defined in our charter) of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust and (2) the price received by the trustee from the sale or other disposition of the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the proposed transferee and are owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the proposed transferee will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, prior to our discovery that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the shares are sold by the proposed transferee, then (1) the shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and (2) to the extent that the proposed transferee received an amount for the shares that exceeds the amount he was entitled to receive, the excess shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.
In addition, shares of our stock held in the trust will be deemed to have been offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer to the trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of the devise or gift) and (2) the market price on
the date we, or our designee, accept the offer. We will have the right to accept the offer until the trustee has sold the shares. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee. We may reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the proposed transferee and are owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee. We may pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
Every owner of more than 5% (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating his name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock which he beneficially owns, and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner shall provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of his beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits and the other restrictions set forth in our charter. In addition, each stockholder shall upon demand be required to provide us with such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.
These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “CTT.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our shares of common stock is ComputerShare Inc.
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
Under Maryland law, business combinations between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of our outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of ours who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our then-outstanding stock.
A person is not an interested stockholder if our board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by our board of directors.
After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between us and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our then-outstanding shares of voting stock; and
two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our voting stock other than stock held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or stock held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if our common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their stock in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its stock.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution providing that any business combination between us and any other person is exempted from this statute, provided that such business combination is first approved by our board. This resolution, however, may be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time. If this resolution is repealed, the statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer to acquire us.
Control Share Acquisitions
Maryland law provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of stockholders entitled to cast two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror, by officers or by employees who are directors of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:
one-tenth or more but less than one-third;
one-third or more but less than a majority; or
a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the board of directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders’ meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders’ meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions of shares of our stock by any person. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated (without stockholder approval) at any time in the future.
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:
a two-thirds vote requirement to remove a director;
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by the vote of the directors;
a requirement that a vacancy on our board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and
a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.
Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (2) require, unless called by our board of directors, the chairman of the board, our president or our chief executive officer, the request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders to call a special meeting to act on such matter. Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected that, except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any and all vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the advance notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of the bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors at a special meeting may be made only (1) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (2) provided that the special meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the advance notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions of the bylaws.
Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of the Charter and Bylaws
The business combination provisions (if the board of directors rescinds its resolution exempting any business combination between us and any other person or otherwise fails to first approve such business combination) and the control share acquisition provisions (if the applicable provision in our bylaws is rescinded) of Maryland law, any provisions of our charter electing to be subject to Subtitle 8, and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for stockholders or otherwise be in their best interest.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability for our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Our charter requires us, to the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter also permits us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission as unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct, was adjudged liable to the corporation or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.
In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we indemnify such executive officers and directors against all expenses and liabilities and pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding if such director or executive officer is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.