Description of Registrant's Securities
EX-4.8 2 brpa_ex48.htm DESCRIPTION OF REGISTRANT'S SECURITIES brpa_ex48
DESCRIPTION OF REGISTRANT'S SECURITIES
The following is a description of the material terms of the common stock of Big Rock Partners Acquisition Corp. (the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”), as well as other material terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws, as amended and the applicable provisions of Delaware law. This description is only a summary. You should read it together with the Company Certificate and Bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and incorporated by reference herein.
As of December 31, 2019, we are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001. As of December 31, 2019, 5,149,749 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding. No shares of preferred stock were outstanding as of December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, there were 7,172,500 rights and 3,586,250 warrants outstanding.
Each unit consists of one share of common stock one right and one-half of one warrant. Each right entitles the holder thereof to receive one-tenth (1/10) of one share of common stock on the consummation of an initial business combination. Each whole warrant entitles the holder to purchase one share of common stock. Pursuant to the warrant agreement, a warrant holder may exercise his, her or its warrants only for a whole number of shares of common stock. This means that only a whole warrant may be exercised at any given time by a warrant holder. No fractional warrants will be issued upon separation of the units and only whole warrants will trade. Accordingly, unless you purchase at least two units, you will not be able to receive or trade a whole warrant.
Our stockholders of record are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters to be voted on by stockholders. In connection with any vote held to approve our initial business combination, our sponsor, as well as all of our officers and directors, have agreed to vote their respective shares of common stock owned by them immediately prior to the initial public offering and any shares purchased in the initial public offering or following the initial public offering in the open market in favor of the proposed business combination.
We will consummate our initial business combination only if we have net tangible assets of at least $5,000,001 upon such consummation and, solely if a vote is held to approve a business combination, a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock voted are voted in favor of the business combination.
Our board of directors is divided into two classes, each of which will generally serve for a term of two years with only one class of directors being elected in each year. There is no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares eligible to vote for the election of directors can elect all of the directors.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended provides that we will have until July 23, 2020 to complete an initial business combination. If we have not completed an initial business combination by such date, we will (i) cease all operations except for the purpose of winding up, (ii) as promptly as reasonably possible but not more than ten business days thereafter, redeem 100% of the outstanding public shares, at a per-share price, payable in cash, equal to the aggregate amount then on deposit in the trust account, including any interest earned on the funds held in the trust account net of interest that may be used by us to pay our franchise and income taxes payable, divided by the number of then outstanding public shares, which redemption will completely extinguish public stockholders’ rights as stockholders (including the right to receive further liquidation distributions, if any), subject to applicable law, and (iii) as promptly as reasonably possible following such redemption, subject to the approval of our remaining stockholders and our board of directors, dissolve and liquidate, subject (in the case of (ii) and (iii) above) to our obligations under Delaware law to provide for claims of creditors and the requirements of other applicable law. Our sponsor, officers and directors have agreed to waive their rights to participate in any liquidation distribution occurring upon our failure to consummate an initial business combination with respect to the founder’s shares. Our sponsor, officers and directors will therefore not participate in any liquidation distribution with respect to such shares. They will, however, participate in any liquidation distribution with respect to any shares of common stock acquired in connection with or following the initial public offering.
Our stockholders have no conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights and there are no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to the shares of common stock, except that public stockholders have the right to sell their shares to us in a tender offer or have their shares of common stock converted to cash equal to their pro rata share of the trust account if they vote on the proposed business combination in connection with such business combination and the business combination is completed. Public stockholders who sell or convert their stock into their share of the trust account still have the right to convert their rights or exercise the warrants that they received as part of the units.
Our sponsor has agreed (i) that such shares are subject to certain transfer restrictions, as described in more detail below and (ii) (A) to waive its redemption rights with respect to the founder’s shares and public shares in connection with the completion of our business combination and (B) to waive its rights to liquidating distributions from the trust account with respect to the founder’s shares if we fail to complete our business combination by July 23, 2020, or later if additional extensions are approved, although our sponsor (or any of our executive officers, directors or affiliates) will be entitled to liquidating distributions from the trust account with respect to any public shares acquired if we fail to complete our initial business combination by July 23, 2020, or later if additional extensions are approved. If we submit our business combination to our public stockholders for a vote, our initial stockholder has agreed to vote its founder’s shares and any public shares purchased during or after the initial public offering in favor of our initial business combination and our executive officers, directors and director nominees have also agreed to vote any public shares purchased during or after the offering in favor of our initial business combination. Permitted transferees of our sponsor will be subject to the same obligations of our sponsor.
Subject to certain limited exceptions, these shares will not be transferred, assigned, sold or released from escrow until one year after the date of the consummation of our initial business combination, or earlier with respect to fifty percent (50%) of such shares if, subsequent to our business combination, the last sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds $12.50 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations and recapitalizations) for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period following the consummation of our initial business combination.
As of December 31, 2019, there were no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock with such designation, rights and preferences as may be determined from time to time by our board of directors. No shares of preferred stock are being issued or registered in the initial public offering. Accordingly, our board of directors is empowered, without stockholder approval, to issue preferred stock with dividend, liquidation, conversion, voting or other rights which could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common stock. However, the underwriting agreement prohibits us, prior to a business combination, from issuing preferred stock which participates in any manner in the proceeds of the trust account, or which votes as a class with the common stock on a business combination. We may issue some or all of the preferred stock to effect a business combination. In addition, the preferred stock could be utilized as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control of us. Although we do not currently intend to issue any shares of preferred stock, we cannot assure you that we will not do so in the future.
Public Stockholders’ Rights
Each holder of a right will receive one-tenth (1/10) of one share of common stock upon consummation of our initial business combination, even if the holder of such right redeemed all shares of common stock held by it in connection with the initial business combination. No additional consideration will be required to be paid by a holder of rights in order to receive its additional shares upon consummation of an initial business combination, as the consideration related thereto has been included in the unit purchase price paid for by investors in the initial public offering. If we enter into a definitive agreement for a business combination in which we will not be the surviving entity, the definitive agreement will provide for the holders of rights to receive the same per share consideration the holders of the common stock will receive in the transaction on an as-converted into common stock basis, and each holder of a right will be required to affirmatively convert its rights in order to receive the 1/10 share underlying each right (without paying any additional consideration) upon consummation of the business combination. More specifically, the right holder will be required to indicate its election to convert the rights into underlying shares as well as to return the original rights certificates to us.
If we are unable to complete an initial business combination within the required time period and we liquidate the funds held in the trust account, holders of rights will not receive any such funds with respect to their rights, nor will they receive any distribution from our assets held outside of the trust account with respect to such rights, and the rights will expire worthless.
As soon as practicable upon the consummation of our initial business combination, we will direct registered holders of the rights to return their rights to our rights agent. Upon receipt of the rights, the rights agent will issue to the registered holder of such rights the number of full shares of common stock to which it is entitled. We will notify registered holders of the rights to deliver their rights to the rights agent promptly upon consummation of such business combination and have been informed by the rights agent that the process of exchanging their rights for shares of common stock should take no more than a matter of days. The foregoing exchange of rights is solely ministerial in nature and is not intended to provide us with any means of avoiding our obligation to issue the shares underlying the rights upon consummation of our initial business combination. Other than confirming that the right delivered by a registered holder are valid, we will have no ability to avoid delivery of the shares underlying the rights. Nevertheless, there are no contractual penalties for failure to deliver securities to the holders of the rights upon consummation of an initial business combination. Additionally, in no event will we be required to net cash settle the rights. Accordingly, you might not receive the shares of common stock underlying the rights.
The shares issuable upon conversion of the rights will be freely tradable (except to the extent held by affiliates of ours). We will not issue fractional shares upon conversion of the rights. If, upon conversion of the rights, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon conversion, comply with Section 155 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (which provides that Delaware companies shall either (1) arrange for the disposition of fractional interests by those entitled thereto, (2) pay in cash the fair value of fractions of a share as of the time when those entitled to receive such fractions are determined or (3) issue scrip or warrants in registered form (either represented by a certificate or uncertificated) or in bearer form (represented by a certificate) which shall entitle the holder to receive a full share upon the surrender of such scrip or warrants aggregating a full share). We will make the determination of how we are treating fractional shares at the time of our initial business combination and will include such determination in the proxy materials we will send to stockholders for their consideration of such initial business combination.
Rights contained in the Private Placement Units
The rights contained in the private placement units have the same terms as the public stockholders' rights. See "Rights- Public Stockholders' Rights" above.
Public Stockholders’ Warrants
Each whole warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one share of common stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as discussed below, at any time after the later of the completion of an initial business combination and July 23, 2020. No warrants will be exercisable for cash unless we have an effective and current registration statement covering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and a current prospectus relating to such shares of common stock. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if a registration statement covering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the public warrants is not effective within a specified period following the consummation of our initial business combination, warrant holders may, until such time as there is an effective registration statement and during any period when we shall have failed to maintain an effective registration statement, exercise warrants on a cashless basis pursuant to the exemption provided by Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, provided that such exemption is available. If that exemption, or another exemption, is not available, holders will not be able to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis. In such event, each holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the warrants for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the warrants and the “fair market value” (defined below) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” for this purpose will mean the average reported last sale price of the shares of common stock for the 5 trading days ending on the trading day prior to the date of exercise. The warrants will expire on the fifth anniversary of our completion of an initial business combination, at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption or liquidation.
We may call the warrants for redemption (excluding the warrants contained in the private placement units and any warrants included in additional private units issued to our sponsor, officers or directors in payment of working capital loans made to us, but including any outstanding warrants issued upon exercise of the unit purchase option issued to EarlyBirdCapital and/or its designees), in whole and not in part, at a price of $0.01 per warrant,
at any time during the exercise period,
upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption to each warrant holder,
if, and only if, the reported last sale price of the shares of common stock equals or exceeds $21.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations and recapitalizations), for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading day period ending on the third business day prior to the notice of redemption to warrant holders; and
if, and only if, there is a current registration statement in effect with respect to the shares of common stock underlying such warrants.
The right to exercise will be forfeited unless the warrants are exercised prior to the date specified in the notice of redemption. On and after the redemption date, a record holder of a warrant will have no further rights except to receive the redemption price for such holder’s warrant upon surrender of such warrant.
The redemption criteria for our warrants have been established at a price which is intended to provide warrant holders a reasonable premium to the initial exercise price and provide a sufficient differential between the then-prevailing share price and the warrant exercise price so that if the share price declines as a result of our redemption call, the redemption will not cause the share price to drop below the exercise price of the warrants.
If we call the warrants for redemption as described above, our management will have the option to require all holders that wish to exercise warrants to do so on a “cashless basis.” In such event, each holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the warrants for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the warrants and the “fair market value” (defined below) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average reported last sale price of the shares of common stock for the 5 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants.
The warrants will be issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval, by written consent or vote, of the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding warrants in order to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders.
The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable on exercise of the warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a stock dividend, extraordinary dividend or our recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the warrants will not be adjusted for issuances of shares of common stock at a price below their respective exercise prices.
The warrants may be exercised upon surrender of the warrant certificate on or prior to the expiration date at the offices of the warrant agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price, by certified or official bank check payable to us, for the number of warrants being exercised. The warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of shares of common stock and any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive shares of common stock. After the issuance of shares of common stock upon exercise of the warrants, each holder will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders.
Under the terms of the warrant agreement, we agreed to use our best efforts to have declared effective a prospectus relating to the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and keep such prospectus current until the expiration of the warrants. However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so and, if we do not maintain a current prospectus relating to the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants, holders will be unable to exercise their warrants for cash and we will not be required to net cash settle or cash settle the warrant exercise.
Warrant holders may elect to be subject to a restriction on the exercise of their warrants such that an electing warrant holder would not be able to exercise their warrants to the extent that, after giving effect to such exercise, such holder would beneficially own in excess of 9.8% of the shares of common stock outstanding.
No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the warrants. If, by reason of any adjustment made pursuant to the warrant agreement, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round up to the nearest whole number the number of shares of common stock to be issued to the warrant holder.
Warrants contained in the Private Placement Units
The warrants contained in the private placement units are not be transferable, assignable or salable until after the completion of our initial business combination (except, among other limited exceptions as described under “Principal Stockholders”) and they are not be redeemable by us and may be exercised on a cashless basis so long as they are held by our sponsor or its permitted transferees. Otherwise, the warrants contained in the private placement units have terms and provisions that are identical to the public stockholder warrants. If the warrants contained in the private placement units are held by holders other than our sponsor or its permitted transferees, the warrants contained in the private placement units will be redeemable by us and exercisable by the holders on the same basis as the warrants included in the units being sold in our initial public offering.
If holders of the warrants elect to exercise them on a cashless basis, they would pay the exercise price by surrendering his, her or its warrants for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the warrants and the “fair market value” (defined below) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average reported last sale price of the common stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of warrant exercise is sent to the warrant agent. The reason that we have agreed that these warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis so long as they are held by our sponsor and permitted transferees is because it is not known at this time whether they will be affiliated with us following a business combination. If they remain affiliated with us, their ability to sell our securities in the open market will be significantly limited. We expect to have policies in place that prohibit insiders from selling our securities except during specific periods of time. Even during such periods of time when insiders will be permitted to sell our securities, an insider cannot trade in our securities if he or she is in possession of material non-public information. Accordingly, unlike public stockholders who could exercise their warrants and sell the shares of common stock received upon such exercise freely in the open market in order to recoup the cost of such exercise, the insiders could be significantly restricted from selling such securities. As a result, we believe that allowing the holders to exercise such warrants on a cashless basis is appropriate.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our shares of common stock to date and do not intend to pay cash dividends prior to the completion of a business combination. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition subsequent to completion of a business combination. The payment of any dividends subsequent to a business combination will be within the discretion of our then board of directors. It is the present intention of our board of directors to retain all earnings, if any, for use in our business operations and, accordingly, our board does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future.
Our Transfer Agent, Rights Agent and Warrant Agent
The transfer agent for our securities, rights agent for our rights and warrant agent for our warrants is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, One State Street Plaza, New York, New York 10004.
Listing of our Securities
Our units, common stock, warrants and rights are each traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbols “BRPAU,” “BRPA,” “BRPAW” and “BRPAR,” respectively. Our units commenced public trading on November 20, 2017, and our common stock, rights and warrants commenced public trading on December 1, 2017.
Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws
Staggered board of directors
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our board of directors will be classified into two classes of directors of approximately equal size. As a result, in most circumstances, a person can gain control of our board only by successfully engaging in a proxy contest at two or more annual meetings. Furthermore, because our board is classified, directors may be removed only with cause by a majority of our outstanding shares.
Special meeting of stockholders
Our bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority vote of our board of directors, by our Chief Executive Officer or by our Chairman.
Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations
Our bylaws provide that stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice will need to be received by the company secretary at our principal executive offices not later than the close of business on the 90th day nor earlier than the open of business on the 120th day prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of stockholders. Pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, proposals seeking inclusion in our annual proxy statement must comply with the notice periods contained therein. Our bylaws also specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholders’ meeting. These provisions may preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders.
Authorized but unissued shares
Our authorized but unissued common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.
Exclusive Forum Selection
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and employees for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. Although we believe this provision benefits our company by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regulating corporate takeovers. This statute prevents certain Delaware corporations, under certain circumstances, from engaging in a “business combination” with:
a stockholder who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock (otherwise known as an “interested stockholder”);
an affiliate of an interested stockholder; or
an associate of an interested stockholder, for three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder.
A “business combination” includes a merger or sale of more than 10% of our assets. However, the above provisions of Section 203 do not apply if:
our board of directors approves the transaction that made the stockholder an “interested stockholder,” prior to the date of the transaction;
after the completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, that stockholder owned at least 85% of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, other than statutorily excluded shares of common stock; or
on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and authorized at a meeting of our stockholders, and not by written consent, by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.
Limitation on Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our directors and officers will be indemnified by us to the fullest extent authorized by Delaware law as it now exists or may in the future be amended. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our directors will not be personally liable for monetary damages to us for breaches of their fiduciary duty as directors, unless they violated their duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders, acted in bad faith, knowingly or intentionally violated the law, authorized unlawful payments of dividends, unlawful stock purchases or unlawful redemptions, or derived an improper personal benefit from their actions as directors.
Our bylaws also permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director or employee for any liability arising out of his or her actions, regardless of whether Delaware law would permit indemnification. We will purchase a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our directors and officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment in some circumstances and insures us against our obligations to indemnify the directors and officers.
These provisions may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions also may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. Furthermore, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions. We believe that these provisions, the insurance and the indemnity agreements are necessary to attract and retain talented and experienced directors and officers.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.