Description of Capital Securities

EX-4.2 2 arav-ex42_11.htm EX-4.2 arav-ex42_11.htm

Exhibit 4.2




Aravive, Inc. (“we,” “us,” and “our”) has one class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which is our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “common stock”).


The following is a description of the material terms of our common stock. This is a summary only and does not purport to be complete. It is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, each of which are incorporated by reference as an exhibit to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.  We encourage you to read our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, for additional information.


Description of Common Stock


Authorized Shares of Common Stock.  We currently have authorized 100,000,000 shares of common stock.  


Voting Rights.  Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, except as otherwise required by statute. Except as otherwise provided by statute or by applicable stock exchange rules, in all matters other than the election of directors, stockholders may take action with the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at a stockholder meeting and entitled to vote generally on the subject matter. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Except as otherwise provided by statute, stockholders may elect directors by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable.


Dividends. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.


Liquidation Rights. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating convertible preferred stock outstanding at that time after payment of liquidation preferences, on any outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock and payment of other claims of creditors.


Rights and Preferences. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.


Preemptive or Similar Rights. Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion or redemption.


Fully Paid and Nonassessable.  All of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.


Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Charter Documents and Some Provisions of Delaware Law

Delaware Law

We are incorporated in the State of Delaware.  As a result, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:



before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;



upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or



on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:



any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;



any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;



subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;



any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or



the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.


In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation. A Delaware corporation may “opt out” of these provisions with an express provision in its certificate of incorporation. We have not opted out of these provisions, which may as a result, discourage or prevent mergers or other takeover or change of control attempts of us.


Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding are able to elect all of our directors. Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the vote of 66 2/3% of our outstanding common stock. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.



Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws also provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our Bylaws also provide that only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors may call a special meeting of stockholders.

Our Bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.

Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that the stockholders cannot amend many of the provisions described above except by a vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock.

The combination of these provisions makes it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Choice of Forum

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for:


any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;


any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or


any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.


A Delaware corporation is allowed to mandate in its corporate governance documents a chosen forum for the resolution of state law based shareholder class actions, derivative suits and other intra-corporate disputes.


This exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or other federal securities laws for which there is exclusive federal or concurrent federal and state jurisdiction.


Our management believes limiting state law based claims to Delaware will provide the most appropriate outcomes as the risk of another forum misapplying Delaware law is avoided, Delaware courts have a well-developed body of case law and limiting the forum will preclude costly and duplicative litigation and avoids the risk of inconsistent outcomes. Additionally, Delaware Chancery Courts can typically resolve disputes on an accelerated schedule when compared to other forums.




While management believes limiting the forum for state law based claims is a benefit, shareholders could be inconvenienced by not being able to bring a state law based action in another forum they find favorable.

Several lawsuits involving other companies have been brought challenging the validity of choice of forum provisions in certificates of incorporation, and it is possible that a court could note such provision is inapplicable or unenforceable.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.  


Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARAV.”