Description of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act

EX-4.7 2 aplt-20191231ex47f74bdd4.htm EX-4.7 Ex_47

Exhibit 4.7


Description of Common Stock

The following is a summary of the rights and preferences of our common stock, and the related provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as each is in effect as the date hereof, copies of which are incorporated by reference as Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 of which this Exhibit 4.7 is a part.  While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our common stock, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you.  We encourage you to read carefully our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the other documents we refer to for a more complete understanding of our common stock.

Except as otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” refer to Applied Therapeutics, Inc.  The rights of our stockholders are generally covered by Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws (each as amended and restated and in effect on the date hereof).    The terms of our common stock are therefore subject to Delaware law.


Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that we may issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.    As of December 31, 2019, we had 18,531,560 shares of common stock outstanding.

Voting Rights

Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders.  The affirmative vote of holders of at least 662/3% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock, voting as a single class, is required to amend certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, including provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, the classified board, the size of our board, removal of directors, director liability, vacancies on our board, special meetings, stockholder notices, actions by written consent and exclusive jurisdiction.  There are no cumulative voting rights.


Subject to preferences that may apply to any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends that our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for that purpose on a non-cumulative basis.


In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences

Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock.  The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.


Registration Rights

Certain holders of shares of our common stock, including those shares of our common stock that were issued upon the conversion of our preferred stock in connection with our initial public offering in May 2019 (the “IPO”), are entitled to certain rights with respect to registration of such shares under the Securities Act.  These shares are referred to as registrable securities.  The holders of these registrable securities possess registration rights pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and are described in additional detail below.  The registration of shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of the registration rights described below would enable the holders to trade these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective.  We will pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts, selling commissions and stock transfer taxes, of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registrations described below.

Generally, in an underwritten offering, the managing underwriter, if any, has the right, subject to specified conditions and limitations, to limit the number of shares the holders may include.  The demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights described below will expire no later than three years after the completion of the IPO, or with respect to any particular holder, at such time that such holder can sell its shares under Rule 144 of the Securities Act during any three-month period.

Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:


before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;


upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or


on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 662/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:


any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;


any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;


subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;


any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and




the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:


permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate, including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in control;


provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;


provide that our board of directors be classified into three classes of directors;


provide that, subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock to elect directors, directors may only be removed for cause, which removal may be effected, subject to any limitation imposed by law, by the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding shares of the capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of directors;


provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;


require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;


provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide advance notice in writing, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;


provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or president or by our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and


not provide for cumulative voting rights, therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

The amendment of any of these provisions would require approval by the holders of at least 662/3% of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding common stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

The combination of these provisions make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors.  Because our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more



difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management.  In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids.  These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights.  However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management.  As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.  We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Choice of Forum

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, with respect to any state actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.  The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with one or more actions or proceedings described above, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable.


Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “APLT.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.