EX-4.5 2 atrs-ex45_200.htm EX-4.5 atrs-ex45_200.htm
DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE
SECURITIES ACT OF 1934
The following description sets forth certain material terms and provisions of our securities that are registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
(A) Description of Common Stock
Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders and there are no cumulative voting rights. Subject to the preferential rights of any holders of our preferred stock, dividends may be declared and paid or set apart for payment to holders of our common stock out of any of our assets or funds legally available, but only when and as declared by our board of directors. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of our common stock would be entitled to share in our assets remaining after the payment of our debts and liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to any holders of our outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
Our common stock is not convertible into, or exchangeable for, any other class or series of our capital stock. Holders of our common stock do not have preemptive or other rights to subscribe for or purchase additional securities of ours.
(B) Anti-Takeover Effects of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws
Removal of Directors and Vacancies
Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) provides that directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 70% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote at an election of directors. Under our Certificate of Incorporation, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.
Staggered Board of Directors
Our board of directors has been divided into three classes of directors. The term of one class will expire each year. Directors for each class will be chosen for a three-year term upon the expiration of such class’s term, and the directors in the other two classes will continue in office. The staggered terms for directors may affect stockholders’ ability to change control of our company even if a change in control were in the stockholders’ interest.
No Cumulative Voting
Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated By-Laws (the “By-Laws”) do not provide for cumulative voting.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and our By-Laws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before such meeting and may not be taken by written action in lieu of a meeting. Our Certificate of Incorporation and our By-Laws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders may only be called by a resolution approved by the majority of our board of directors. In addition, our By-Laws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Stockholders may only consider proposals or nominations at an annual meeting specified in the notice of the meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
The authorization in our Certificate of Incorporation of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors, without obtaining further stockholder approval, to issue preferred stock with voting rights or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to take control of us.
Supermajority Voting for Certain Amendments to Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws
The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or by-laws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or by-laws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our Certificate of Incorporation requires the affirmative vote of at least 70% of the shares entitled to vote, as well as the affirmative vote of at least 70% of the shares of each class of capital stock entitled to vote as a class, to amend or repeal any provision of Articles VI, VII, VIII, IX or X of our Certificate of Incorporation. Our Certificate of Incorporation also provides that amendment or repeal of our By-Laws by stockholders requires the affirmative vote of at least 70% of the shares entitled to vote, voting as a single class, except that if our board of directors recommends that our stockholders approve an amendment or repeal, then such recommended amendment or repeal shall only require the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, voting as a single class.